Hans von Lieven: KeelyTech: Paper on John Ernst Worrell Keely

http://www.keelytech.com/ - Hans von Lieven

I shall confine myself to examining Keely's theories and experiments in the light of today's scientific knowledge and attempt to explain what Keely did in plain modern English, as far as that is possible.

Keely's comments appeared at first inspection as pseudo scientific gibberish intended to cull huge funds from gullible investors. On closer inspection though a pattern emerged, that in its logic and order is equal to any scientific treatise, especially when one considers that the man was endeavoring to impart a sophisticated body of knowledge to a world that was still trying to come to grips with the steam engine.

Fundamentally, Keely's approach was simple.

We know we can cancel a waveform by levelling against it the same waveform that has been inverted.

So Keely set about doing just that. He identified the incompatible waveforms that interfered with the pure fundamental waveform of the body under study and proceeded to cancel them out by by tuning the mass he operated upon to as pure a note he could manage and an arrangement of acoustic resonators of opposite value to the incompatible frequencies that were left.

He called this his 'system of graduation'. There is more to it than that, but for the moment it will suffice. The subject of graduation will be covered in greater detail in a later chapter.

In his view this created a state where ALL FORCES were held in perfect balance.

Keely reasoned that disturbance of equilibrium in the body under study could be influenced by changing the amplitude of selected sections in the fundamental pure frequency pattern.

We know that a resonant body will accept energy at its own level of resonance but reject energy at frequencies far removed from its own level of resonance. This is also true for the harmonics of that fundamental frequency.

By an arrangement of acoustic resonators, carefully tuned to the precise frequency of the harmonic he wanted to stimulate, he managed to achieve this.

So far we are still on safe ground as far as contemporary science is concerned. Though very much simplified here for the sake of readability this is essentially what Keely did.

Keely claims that by changing the amplitude of certain segments of the wavepattern he could influence the cohesive forces between particles from an incredible denseness to complete disintegration. In other words he believed he had found a way to manipulate gravity.

Keely, vehemently claimed that bodies of 'pure concordant harmony' did not exist in nature, in fact could not exist in nature, and that such pure states had to be induced by artifice. He further claimed that this state had to be created before any manipulation could take place.

The rest of his writings concern themselves with technical difficulties encountered and identifying effective frequencies and ratios of amplitude in order to achieve specific effects.

His main difficulty was that he was trying to build a helicopter with a stone axe.

In Keely's time there were no oscilloscopes, computers, frequency generators etc. etc. and since he essentially worked with sound he had to rely principally on his ear, a few instruments and his knowledge of harmonics, mainly understood by organ builders and musicians of his time.

We know that Keely was a gifted musician. That he had an intimate understanding of harmonic interreactions encountered in the building and tuning of organs is beyond dispute. His own writings and contemporary records show ample evidence of that.

In the absence of waveform generators, transducers, loud speakers, amplifiers etc. the only way he had to transmit acoustic waveforms to a body was through the medium of harmonic resonance.

This requires apart from perfect hearing, an extraordinary amount of skill in building the required structure. Few people possess this to the degree Keely did.

That he managed at all to build working machines is astounding, but, to me at least, it is not surprising that no-one to date has been able to duplicate what he did.

We have far better ways of creating the conditions Keely sought than were available to him. But first we must understand what it was that Keely actually built.

Few photographs of Keely's machines exist and there are only scant descriptions. But there is enough.

One of the things that tells us more than perhaps anything else is that all Keely's machines, regardless of what they are, Motor, Disintegrator, Air Ships etc, follow the same pattern of construction.

There invariably is some sort of a hollow body that has an INTERNAL as well as an EXTERNAL arrangement of resonators.

There is also a tiny opening through which a connection can be established, often by means of a tube or a wire made of silver, gold and platinum. In later designs he dispenses with this. It will become clear in a moment why.

At the heart of Keely's system is what he called in his earlier years his 'Compound Disintegrator'. I would like to stress here that this 'Compound Disintegrator' is part of each and every machine he built that I have knowledge of with the exception of his 'Hydro-Vacuo Motor' which appears to be an oddity that has little in common with all his other designs. Even his so called 'Musical Sphere' contains the device internally, albeit in much modified form. This dispensed with the need of connecting the 'Desintegrator' with the motor by means of a graduated wire of silver, gold and platinum or by some other means, what we today would call a waveguide.

The description of his "Compound Disintegrator" gives us essentially the blueprint to all of his machines, at least as far as the construction is concerned.

what Keely did was to induce a specific frequency inside a hollow structure (cavity) by using the structure itself as the conductor and an external resonator as stimulant.

To achieve this effect ALL parts of the structure had to be in PERFECT harmonic relationship to each other in order to work. A major scratch on the sphere for instance would change the resonant characteristics and make the whole thing useless. Everything would have to be graduated again in order to harmonise with the altered fundamental note. This was the biggest problem with Keely's machines. In my view he could, with a lot of effort, make his machines work, but a commercial exploitation with the tools of his day was out of reach. Keely knew this.

But Keely went further.

He managed to find notes in the spectrum where he could not only transmit harmonics of the fundamental but also the discordant notes that were required without disturbing the fundamental frequency of the structure and still carry them to the inside of the cavity. I believe he found that the scale of B-flat was most suitable for his purposes, since he constantly uses this scale for illustration.

Keely in essence created a specific, complex waveform INSIDE a resonant cavity using the entire structure as a conductor for the waveform, relying on resonance alone!

I seriously doubt that there are two people in the world today that can build such a device and make it work to the degree Keely did, even if given a set of blueprints.

We know today about the power of cavity resonators, the entire microwave industry is relying on it. WE ARE COOKING WITH IT, but hardly anyone notices the similarity with Keely's machines. But the question remains,

"WHAT, IF ANYTHING, DID KEELY INVENT?"

To answer this we must look at the basic diagram again. What do we know happens inside that magic sphere of his after the internal resonators are excited?

Well, they emit a sound of some sort.

Now what?

Well, the sound would travel, bounce of the confining sphere until it eventually escaped through a hole or a waveguide.

Sound familiar? Is there a modern device that does something like this?

YOU BET THERE IS!

IT IS CALLED A LASER!!!

When you look at it, though it may sound very sophisticated, the technology involved is quite crude. It is a cylinder of some sort fitted at each end with a parabolic mirror, one of which has a tiny hole in the centre. The cylinder may be a solid piece of synthetic ruby or a glass tube filled with some gas such as helium or a mixture of gases. There is a source of light mounted above or wrapped around the cylider for efficiency. It looks like this:

So far nothing exciting. Now what happens?

Some of the light strikes one of the mirrors and gets deflected. Since the cylinder is filled with gas, or the thing is a solid piece of artificial ruby the kind of light that strikes the mirror is of a specific frequency.

What happens now is interesting.

As I said light strikes the mirrors and is deflected, some straight into the other mirror. It starts to bounce back and forth until it eventually strikes the hole which is in one of the mirrors and escapes.

OK. Now we have a beam of light coming out of a hole, a bit like a torch. SO WHAT??

Well, the interesting thing is that the light coming out of the hole has properties that normal light just doesn't have. Like melting metal for instance.

you can look up all that stuff about coherent light and what it does at certain frequencies. It's fascinating stuff but I don't want to get into it any further because it is not helpful here.

The interesting thing is that by bouncing certain pure lightwaves in an enclosed cavity (as far as light is concerned anyway) back and forth it eventually emerges as a new form of energy capable of influencing matter.

Now, nearly all scientists today would question my use of the term "new form of energy", and argue that it is just good old light that has been aligned and thereby acquired new properties. Personally I would argue against that. I would argue that their 'coherent light beam' somehow influenced what Keely called the 'Triune Stream' and that the effects are due to this.

But, be that as it may. I don't care what my colleagues would say, as far as I am concerned what Keely invented was:

THE ACOUSTIC LASER!!

It's not all that much of a mental jump. If we can get selected light bouncing back and forth and the resultant beam has different properties why should it not work with sound. After all both are just waves in their specific spectrum.

It is my theory that like the 'coherent light' of the laser; that is capable of inducing rapid molecular motion (heat etc.) the 'coherent sound' of Keely was capable of inducing gravitic changes.

Keely's problem was that apart from resonance, he had no other way of inducing specific waveforms inside a cavity and that imposed restrictions that dogged him all his life.

Because his system relies on resonance alone all the component parts of his equipment have to be in perfect harmonic relationship to each other for it to work.

Even the most carefully tuned musical instrument will detune after a while, whether it is played or not. This is true even for pipe organs. Changing conditions like temperature, humidity, external vibrations, dirt, minor structural damage etc. etc. bring about a rapid deterioration of the carefully arranged harmonic relationships and render the structure discordant, a fatal flaw in Keely's machines.

Keely had no feedback system that could compensate for these changes. The technology of his day did not allow for it. Only careful manual re-tuning would render the apparatus operable again.

Outside vibration and wear were Keely's biggest enemies. That is why we see in Keely's demonstrations evidence of the infinite care that Keely took to avoid the accidental introduction of discordant vibrations through for instance the engine mounts etc. etc.

If for instance a jackhammer had been working in the vicinity of his machines his motor would at once have come to a standstill.

It had to.

Keely demonstrated the starting and stopping of his motor by producing a single chord on a violin, harmonica or zither.

It absolutely amazes me that no-one in his time noticed that this was a fatal flaw in his design.

Real work situations are always filled with uncontrollable sounds and noises.

Many of these noises, like hammer blows, grinding noises, bumps and so forth are rich in harmonics, some of which would have been picked up by Keely's ultra sensitive equipment throwing the carefully arranged harmonic relationships out of balance and stopping the mechanism or sending it into an uncontrollable spin, perhaps even exploding it. I feel that many of the explosions that dogged Keely all his life were due to the influence of uncontrollable extraneous vibrations.

Even the addition of a drive shaft , gearbox or pulley to one of his motors would have introduced waveforms that made his equipment inoperable.

Keely HAD to know this.

That is why his later researches concentrated on airships, such structures not being so susceptible to the influence of extraneous vibrations.

Translating Keely.


Keely always maintained that his system was truly wonderful in its simplicity. Few people ever saw anything simple in what he said. But then few people ever looked up the obscure words Keely used as a matter of habit.

Keely spoke in the language of an 18th century organ builder. If you don't believe me, find a book on organ building of that period and you'll be in for a treat. 400 pages of pure unadulterated Keelyspeak.

Much of what Keely said dealt with harmonic relationships and the difficulties he had graduating his machines in order to establish the wavepatterns he needed.

Keely tells us everything. There is nothing estoric in what he did.

The reason no-one to date has been able to duplicate Keely's machines is the almost unbelievable precision with which he built his devices!

No-one today can raise the funds required to duplicate what he achieved by mechanical means. In today's money Keely spent many millions of dollars building and perfecting his machines. The cost of duplicating his devices with the precision Keey did is nowadays prohibitive.

But there is hope. By using electronics for much that Keely had to do with mechanics we can and will duplicate his motor!

Keely observed that huge forces held particles together in 'corpuscular embraces'. He knew this because he had been able to disrupt these 'embraces' and liberated extraordinary amounts of energy whose origin could not be explained in any other way. We know today that this is true. Hiroshima and Nagasaki are stark reminders of that fact.

It is interesting to note that this was unknown to science in Keely's time. That Keely knew this gives his observations and experiments more credit than anything else he did.

He was one of the first to state categorically that there were enormous amounts of energy locked up in atomic and sub-atomic particles that could be liberated.

Ironically, that was also the statement that discredited him most with the scientists of his day.

The only point where contemporary science and Keely differ is that science maintains that the only way to disrupt these 'embraces' is by bombardment with particles, in other words levelling a big gun at it and start shooting it to pieces.

This approach would have seemed crude and brutal to Keely, had he known about it.

Interestingly enough the idea of liberating energy by 'corpuscular bombardment' was something that Keely, at least at some stage in his experimentation, seriously considered.

From memory he once said something like this: "The ringing of a bell in vacuo liberates as many corpuscles ...."

Clear evidence that Keely did think along these lines. He later discarded that idea in favour of other explanations.

In his later writings Keely obviously thinks that the effects he created were due to the incredibly high frequencies he achieved with his apparatus. To my knowledge no-one has been able to create frequencies anywhere near the ones Keely claims to have produced using mechanical resonators alone. How then did he do it and why can no-one duplicate it?

Keely did not chase rainbows. He had solid reasons for dedicating his life to his researches and his machines in spite of massive hardships along the way. I reasoned that the only thing that would set him on this path was that he had very early on a workable device (i.e. a functioning motor), albeit in a crude form and of low power. The fact that he continually spoke of "perfecting" his motor seems to indicate this. I started off with the following assumptions: 1). Keely had a working motor early in life. 2). The motor was of low power, just enough to move, but not enough to do actual work. 3). No man creates something in total isolation. There had to be parallels in research to be found in the work of contemporary experimenters in the field. 4). Someone, somewhere had invented a similar device, only to be brushed aside with a convenient explanation why it could not be developed to do actual work. Such device could possibly still be found tucked away as a scientific curiosity in some museum somewhere. (Like the Crook's tube) 5). The device induced rotation in a tangible body through the medium of sound waves. All my assumptions proved to be true and verifiable. The device exists, it works and at least one such device is in the collection of early scientific research instruments in a Toronto museum, though there must be others, as they were used during Keely's time in universities all over the world in scientific demonstrations and were in fact manufactured by at least one scientific instrument maker for sale to universities and other research establishments. But back to my research. I started researching the work of Chladni and Helmholtz, knowing that Keely's devices relied heavily on principles discovered by those two eminent scientists. While researching Helmholtz I came across Rudolph Koenig, a German violin builder who had turned scientific instrument maker and had built a number of Helmholtz devices in conjunction with Helmholtz that were sold to universities and other establishments who were conducting research into acoustics. I became very excited when I read Koenig's biography and found that he was a contemporary of Keely and that the two must have known each other since Koenig had an exhibit at the 1876 World Exhibition in Philadelphia where Keely was demonstrating his motor. Koenig manufactured exclusively apparatus used in acoustic research in his workshop in Paris and is, amongst other things, the inventor of the manometric flame (called sensitive flame nowadays), an instrument where a stream of gas is passed through a chamber containing a diaphragm that regulates the flame by regulating the amount of gas feeding it on being excited by acoustic vibrations. These vibrations become visible in the behaviour of the flame and this instrument was invaluable in the research of sound. Undoubtedly Keely had one of the instruments in his workshop. It is reasonable to assume that both men had visited each other's exhibits and talked at length about their areas of research. Here was a link worth following up in detail. Luckily most, if not all, of Koenig's instruments are in excellent condition in collections all over the world. Many are in American institutions having been purchased at the Philadelphia exhibition. Among the instruments are tuning forks, organ pipes, flutes, the above mentioned manometric flame, vibration microscopes and an instrument for Fourier analysis and synthesis which, though stationary and not designed to do any work, exhibits curious parallels to Keely's motor. All except one. Amongst his machines is a small device called an acoustic turbine, which is listed in his 1889 catalogue an item No 75 and sold for 60 Franks. (about $15).

 



Here I will quote Dan A. Davidson, who in his book "A Breakthrough to New Free Energy Resources" writes: One interesting (but unverified) story about Keely concerns the time he built his first free-energy motor--while still a young boy. It was a series of 17 conch shells, 8 affixed to a small wheel forming the rotor. The stator consisted of 9 conches affixed around the outer periphery of the wheel but not attached to the rotating wheel. John had ground the shells so that they were all attuned to the same frequency. When the "motor" was put together the wheel slowly rotated on its axis, clunking and clicking because of imbalances, but nevertheless self-operative. John's enterprising nature led him to the idea of putting the entire assembly into a box and charging his neighbour friends a penny to look inside to see the wheel turning. Impossible you say?--well a research scientist in Los Angeles, Dr. Ruth Drown, has claimed that a special log spiral (the same curve in a conch shell) gives off a strange energy emanation. Here we have a detailed and accurate description of a working acoustic turbine. The outside resonators are simply an arrangement to excite the resonators mounted on the wheel. Needless to say they would have required excitation themselves by means of a tuning fork, a musical instrument or some other sound of the correct pitch. The wheel would have had to turn. In other words the boy's motor worked. Nothing esoteric about its modus operandi. As to the use of the conch shells, they were simply an available source of cavity resonator, easily ground on a sheet of sand paper to the correct pitch. Beer bottles suitably ground would have worked equally well. As to Dr. Ruth Drown (of Radionics fame) who allegedly discovered some mysterious force in log spirals by using her trusty pendulum, that is utter nonsense of course. What is noteworthy here is the time when Keely built his device. Keely was born in 1827. Assuming he was about 13 when he built this thing, that would make it about 1840, some 36 years earlier than the first description of the device! If that does not give credibility to Keely's integrity and honest pursuit of an, in his eyes, achievable goal nothing will. All other things followed from there in a methodical and organised manner. Keely had no secrets. Keely explained his devices and his researches in great detail. He built and demonstrated his machines. He opened them up for inspection to anyone who was interested, he even allowed people to photograph the equipment in assembled and disassembled states. How much more open and less secretive can you possibly be? But the world did not understand. All Keely ever did was to work on ways to improve his original acoustic turbine by experimenting with different resonators and resonator arrangements. He used media other than air in his resonators, i.e. Water vapour, Hydrogen etc, all in an effort to improve the performance of the device. He even repeatedly talked about this. In his pursuits he discovered a number of phenomena as unknown to science as was his first acoustic turbine at the time he invented it.

 

Much of what he discovered is still unknown today because the science of acoustics had taken a different road from the one that Keely was following and never came across the phenomena Keely did. Keely was an inventor and by the look of his machines a superb craftsman. A theoretical physicist he was not! He tried to squeeze his discoveries into a metaphysical model of the world as proposed by theosophists. That put a lot of people off and attracted an audience that was more interested in finding in Keely's work credibility for their own fanciful ideas of how the universe works. That is still the case today. Serious researchers with adequate scientific knowledge unencumbered by offbeat religious ideas are rare and hard to find. The key to unravelling Keely, in my view, is to find out how his machines worked , not in philosophical pontifications as to why! We can do this by studying without preconceptions, metaphysical or otherwise, his machines and descriptions of their construction and the underlying researches that led to it.

One of the things that had puzzled me for a very long time was the question what would possess a young boy to conceive and build a conch shell motor (acoustic turbine) in the first place. The inspiration had to come from somewhere.

Keely got his inspiration in church.

The organ is a superb example of late 17th century craftsmanship, a time when organ building was probably at its peak. It is certainly far beyond anything that one would expect in a place of that size. It was carefully designed with the acoustics of the building in mind (the church holds about 500 people). To listen to the instrument when played by a virtuoso organist it is a moving and overwhelming experience. Having an intense interest in music and being confined to experimentation with a mouth organ, a recorder and the occasional tinkering on the school piano between classes I longed to learn how to play a real instrument. There was one instrument that was accessible to me, albeit at a price. The church and the organ had survived the war virtually unscathed. The air to the organ was supplied by foot operated bellows. Hanging on to a handrail one had to stand on pedals and push them down with one's bodyweight. It was an unpopular job, but someone had to it or the thing could not be played. It was hard work and physically demanding. To encourage us kids to operate the bellows the organist promised to teach us how to play if we pumped the bellows for him on a regular basis. There were a number of takers, me included, who spent countless hours pumping the bellows in exchange for a lesson here and there. The most telling experience though did not come from playing the instrument but from pumping it. Since few people today would have had that experience I need to go here into a little bit more detail. In a pipe organ there is a reservoir of compressed air called the wind chest which has to be replenished by pumping the bellows. Each key has a series of pipes connected to it and when the key is depressed air flows through those pipes generating sound. Organ pipes either go at full blast or they are silent there is no way to alter the volume in a single pipe. The number of pipes in a given note to be engaged is controlled by a stop, a wooden slider that stops air flowing to some of the pipes varying the sound quality and volume. When the stop is pulled all pipes of that pitch are engaged requiring a lot more air than if only one or two of them are engaged. Whoever is pumping the bellows should be familiar with the music that is being played in order to provide the right quantity of air to enable the organist to play the piece properly. When all the stops are pulled and the very large pipes engaged whoever is pumping is working very hard to keep the airflow up, a bit like riding a bicycle at speed. It was during one of those times when it hit me. I was pumping like crazy, all the stops were out, the diapasons and the large foot pedal operated bass pipes were in full bloom, the whole building and everything inside it vibrated and I realised I alone was doing that. Not the organist, he was only pressing the keys, I was the motive power. My then still scrawny legs had caused a building to shake. If I could unleash that kind of power on my bicycle I could surely fly!

 

What else is a church with an organ playing inside than a gigantic Helmholtz resonator with an inbuilt sound generator? The prototype of Keely's liberators!

Any good and dedicated musician has an intense interest in all facets of his most favoured instrument including its construction. Each organist I have ever met, and I have met a few, had a very thorough knowledge of organ building and tuning.

There was no profession at the time in the world that had a more intimate knowledge of acoustics than the old organ builders. They knew about harmonies, eddy currents, vortex formations etc in intimate detail. They had over the centuries built a database that documented every phenomenon they encountered and had published it from time to time. They also had developed a technical language that was very difficult to understand for anyone outside the craft. Old Ernst, talking about acoustics would have spoken like that. He would have had reference books that spoke in that language and young Keely would have thought it normal to talk about these matters in that way.

The next thing we hear from Keely is this passage. "While yet a young man, Keely learned carpentry and used his income to pursue his experiments in sound vibrations. About 1866 while he was pursuing a line of experimentation in sonic vibrations, he discovered a hitherto unknown energy. He was subjecting water to sonic vibrations and had an explosion which wrecked his apparatus. Six years of intensive experiments passed before he was able to produce this energy at will. He found that 42,800 vibrations per second would vaporise water instantly into energy. He named this energy 'Etheric Force' and the process of changing the substance of water into etheric force Dissociation".

Reasoning that the poor performance of his little motor was due to rogue frequencies generated by the structure itself he decided to improve the device by tuning all components parts to compatible harmonics. In later life he continually talks about the absolute necessity of doing this so we are still on safe ground. The next step was to find out the optimum frequencies for such a device. It would not be necessary to build his motor to study the optimum frequencies involved, researching a single resonator would suffice. I believe he started his investigations with a device not unlike this one.

Resonator with electrically driven tuning fork

By placing a manometric flame in front of the resonator the sound vibration coming from the instrument became visible. The results would have been disappointing and inconclusive. In this apparatus the tuning fork sits in front of the resonator opening and the vibrations from the tuning fork would have dominated the vibrations coming from the resonant chamber. Keely knew all there is to know about tuning forks, the object of his study was the behaviour of the sound waves inside the resonator. There really is only one way to do this with the instruments of the time and it would not have taken Keely long to realise how to go about it. By tuning two identical resonators to the same pitch, as to cavity frequency and mass frequency both being connected on a stand with a metal rod tuned to the same frequency, or one harmonically compatible it was possible to excite the first resonator transfer the vibrations mechanically to the second the same conditions would exist in both cavities. That would make it possible to study the waveforms in the second cavity without the dominating vibrations from the tuning fork. This is not a farfetched speculation since all his later devices follow the same pattern, whether he calls the exciting device his transmitter or liberator or something else. It is at this stage that he started to prefer a vertical arrangement of components rather than the traditional horizontal, presumably to keep unwanted frequencies at bay by having as few points as possible in contact with other resonating structures, such as a bench. The way I see this arrangement is something like this. This would have enabled him to study the sound phenomenon occurring inside the resonator with as little interference as possible. That would not have held his attention for long. As the next experiment he would have tried to investigate more complex sounds, such as a harmonic chord and study the effects of that on the body under investigation. The only way he could achieve this was by mounting three resonating bodies in front of the first cavity resonator in place of the tuning fork. This required re-designing his device. He acquired a ring of metal, carefully tuned it to a compatible frequency with the three resonators so mounted inside, them being a tuning fork, a tonometer bar and a Chladni plate, mounted his cavity resonator on the top, put it onto a suitably tuned vertical stand and now he could produce a complex waveform inside another cavity resonator induced by resonance and observe the waveform inside that resonator by placing a manometric flame above it. His vibrating transmitter was born. Fanciful speculation, I hear many of you say at this point. NOT AT ALL! The device existed, maybe still exists. There are a few photographs of it though no-one I know of has ever mentioned its purpose. He refers to it in his writings as the 'vibrating transmitter with the telephonic head'. The description is an allusion to the shape of the resonator mounted on top of the ring, which bears a resemblance to an earpiece of a contemporary telephone. Why he chose a conical resonator for this device is unclear to me, maybe by giving it the shape of a megaphone he tried to amplify it's output. Later, when he had learned to produce the wave patterns he needed inside a resonator cavity he discarded the shape in favour of a spherical arrangement. But, no more talk, here it is.

Keely's first "Compound Transmitter"

Notice the conical resonator on top of the ring, the tonometer bar inside the metal ring topmost, followed by the tuning fork in the middle and the Chladni plate at the bottom. It is here worthy of note that tonometers, tuning forks and Chladni plates were standard items in every acoustics laboratory at that time. For photos of contemporary examples click on the words. The device must have worked well. Here are some more photographs where his device is featured, a sure sign that this was his main transmitter for a while until superseded by later designs.In later designs he places his resonators inside a hollow metal sphere. There would have been good reason to do so. the open ring with the resonators inside would have been far more likely to pick up rogue frequencies from the environment, a problem he appeared to have overcome with his later arrangement. I have to apologise here for the poor quality of the pictures, mostly poor resolution JPG's I have plucked from various web sites. If someone could let me have some better quality scans of his equipment it would be most helpful. But, back to our subject. How did this lead to the disintegration of water allegedly by accident, or was he doing something else that he never talked about? I don't believe he did something else. By following in a logical and methodical manner the same path of research we will see how it leads to that particular discovery and why no-one known has been able to duplicate it. O.K. so he had his compound transmitter. In today's terms we would call it an acoustic waveform generator. What now? Since the whole idea of building the thing was to study complex waveforms and their behaviour inside a cavity resonator he would have done just that. The arrangement of the various elements would have looked something like this: Now he is looking at complex waveforms inside a resonator. So, what? And how does water get into the equation? This question puzzled me for some time until I remembered something from when I was a boy. Toys and musical instruments were scarce in early post-war Germany. I loved both. An old man told me that if I collected a few bottles he would make me a musical toy. When I had a number of bottles he suspended them on strings from a broom handle resting horizontally on two timber forks cut from a tree branch and staked vertically in the ground. He then filled the bottles with various levels of water and bingo a sort of xylophone. The bottles when struck with a hammer made different notes and it was possible to play simple tunes on the thing. As the water evaporated they would get out of tune and required retuning by adding a bit more to various bottles. The process of tuning was so tedious I soon tired of the device and did something else. Of course, that was it! Keely would have done just that to study the patterns caused by minor changes in pitch. For his purpose an eyedropper would have been ideal. We know from his later experiments and writings that he never used more than a few drops of water at a time. I don't know how many times he made his experiments. Judging by his tenacity in pursuing failed experiments until they paid off, as commented upon by many of his contemporaries, perhaps a thousand times or more. Eventually he struck the right combination. The water dissociated into H2 O2, a highly explosive gas, the manometric flame at the top ignited it and BOOM, his first taste of "etheric vapour". After that there was no stopping him. I don't think he knew for quite some time what he had done, but of one thing he was convinced. He had 'liberated' an enormous amount of energy using sound.

 

He is talking to a reporter about his demonstrations at Sandy Hook where he was firing a gun using his "etheric vapour". A reporter of the Press was cautiously examining a vaporic vibrator that lay on the table in the middle of the room. Laying down his paper the inventor wheeled around in his chair, and, after studying for a moment, broke the silence that he has so persistently maintained, and, for the first time in several years, communicated his thoughts to a newspaper man. "My experimenting days are over," he said. "This will develop my active enterprise. Complete success is very near at hand. My experiments at Sandy Hook demonstrated that my vaporic force is a fact and not a mere creation of fancy, as many persons have persisted in declaring. I am now able to produce a power of projection thrice greater than that of gunpowder, and there is no limit to this force. My motor will be completed in less than two months and I will then make a public exhibition of its wonderful power, which are already in a position to manifest themselves. The adaptation of my force to gunnery is positively assured. I can apply it with more effect than that of nitroglycerine." The inventor paused and took out of a satchel what looked like a policeman's billy. "This," he said, "is what I call a vibrator. It is a hollow coil of steel of the finest quality. In one end is an orifice, by which it is attached to the gun. It is the most peculiar piece of steel in the world. Listen," and the inventor tapped one end of the coil twice, sharply, upon the floor and held it to the ear of the reporter. "Do you hear anything?" The reporter did hear something. The steel cone was humming in a very high key. The noise was like that of a tuning fork. Taking the core in his hand, the reporter found that it was quivering from one end to the other. Mr. Keely continued: "It hums, don't it? No other piece of metal in the world of similar shape will hum at all. See if it does," and he tapped another hollow bar of steel on the floor and held it to the reporter's car. Not a sound was audible, not a quiver could be detected.

"That steel bar," said Mr. Keely, "was the beginning of my motor. By means of it I stumbled on my discoveries. For seven years I have kept flowing through that core a stream of etheric vapour. The action of the vapour has been to affect the relations of the molecules and to alter to a certain extent their conditions. For this reason it has become subject to these vibrations, which are excited in the manner I have shown you. There has been no apparent out ward change in the steel. Its weight is the same as before, but it is in the process of silent dissolution. Were I to pass through it for 20 years longer, this etheric vapour, it would crumble into nothingness, be transformed into the most impalpable dust, or whatever you may choose to call it.

The steel core is necessary for the promulgation of the projecting force of the etheric vapour when applied to gunnery. When the vapour was first allowed to flow through the core of steel, the vibrations were scarcely audible. Gradually they increased in volume, and the noise became more and more audible. The vibrations through it have averaged 300,000 per second. It has sufficient force to operate a 500-horse power engine. So what does that mean and how does it relate to problems encountered with the disintegration of water? What he is saying is that prolonged exposure to specific frequencies relating harmonically to the body under study changes the structural arrangement within that body and makes it more receptive to these frequencies.

The structural changes are subtle and cumulative. In other words, the vibratory stream causes a structural re-arrangement on the outside of the resonator, perhaps only one molecule thick. This layer now being capable of transmitting pure concordant harmonies influences the layer below and so forth until the whole body is free from nodal inferences. The depth to which the vibrations can penetrate and cause a structural re-arrangement at any given time is what he calls in his later writings "sympathetic outreach". He continually talks about the absolute necessity of doing this with all parts of his equipment. He calls this his system of 'graduation'.

Every musician knows that a well played string sounds 'sweeter' than a new one. A fine musical ear can tell the difference. Especially in Keely's time opera singers delighted in shattering a thin wine glass with their voice alone. If that is not a structural re-arrangement I don't know what is.

 

Engineers know that vibrations close to the fundamental frequency (or a harmonic thereof) of a component part bring about its premature failure. We call this metal fatigue. Engineers go to extreme lengths to avoid these kind of vibrations in their equipment and use every trick in the book to neutralise or dampen their impact. We are still on safe ground as far as orthodox science is concerned, no new theories, metaphysical or otherwise, are needed. Every day of the week scientists and engineers subject parts under study to various vibrations and carefully note any changes that occur. So what brings about these structural changes and in what way does it alter the properties of matter? To get some answers we must look at the properties of sound, what is it, and how it behaves.

 

The Nature of Sound.

Sound is a mechanical longitudinal pressure wave in gases and liquids. In solids and metals transverse pressure waves are also generated.

It requires a medium to travel.

The speed at which sound travels through a medium is largely dependent on the density of the medium. As a rule of thumb, the denser the medium, the faster the speed of sound. So what does that mean in practical terms? Say we have a long tube filled with some medium, say air, each end sealed with a flexible membrane. Figure 1. We now push membrane A towards membrane B. What happens when the air particles adjacent membrane A get compressed? Figure 2. We now have an area of high compression adjacent to the membrane while the rest of the particles in the tube are still in their old positions. We have disturbed the equilibrium of forces inside the tube. Since nature always tries to re-establish equilibrium the compression gets passed on to the next lot of particles from there to the next and so forth until the compressed zone reaches Membrane B. The compression zone acting on Membrane B causes said membrane to move in the direction of the original push by exactly the same amount of displacement, minus some minor losses due to friction etc, as that caused by Membrane A. Figure 3. Equilibrium thus re-established the movement comes to rest. The reaction is not instantaneous through the length of the tube. It requires time for each particle to push the adjacent one in turn. In other words the compression zone travels. The speed of travel is the speed of sound, although we express this usually as the length of travel over a given time frame in m/sec or ft/sec. What happens now when we withdraw the pressure from Membrane A? Figure 4. The particles in the compression zone adjacent to the rarefied zone rush in to fill it, in turn creating a rarefied zone behind. This reaction happens in turn throughout the tube until the rarefied zone reaches Membrane B, allowing the membrane to assume its original position.
In other words the rarefied zone travels in the same way as the compression zone did and at the same speed.
Equilibrium thus restored the movement come to rest. Figure 5. If the compression and decompression cycles are shorter than the time required for the compression zone to reach Membrane B we get a rarefied zone behind membrane A while the compression zone still travels towards Membrane A. We thus get a series of compression and decompression zones following each other from Membrane A to Membrane B at the same intervals as membrane A is moved, causing membrane B to move in exactly the same manner as Membrane A, albeit some time later. Figure 6. The travelling compression zones thus created we call waves. The rapidity of movement we call frequency. Frequency is expressed as cycles per second or Hertz. This is what the movement looks like:
It is of importance here to note that the actual particles in the tube move only for very short distances before returning to their original positions. This is in stark contrast to electromagnetic radiation (which is also called waves) where actual particles travel across a distance, be they ions, electrons, photons or alpha and gamma particles. That is why light, radio waves etc can travel through a vacuum, whereas sound cannot. Two light waves crossing, each other at right angles do not effect each other in any way. Two soundwaves crossing at right angles have a profound effect on each other that becomes more noticeable when the frequency of the waves are different. Leaving that aside for the moment, for this comes under category of harmonics, beat frequencies, feedback etc, let us get back to structural changes within matter brought about by sound. We know we can destroy particulate structures using sound. Metal fatigue and the breaking of glass can be brought about by sonic vibrations. Since we also know that prolonged exposure is required to achieve this, which means that the effects of sound are cumulative, there must also be intermediate stages where the effects of sound have not brought about destruction, but have altered matter in profound ways nevertheless. It is in that area where Keel's work is unique.Keely with diligent research and meticulous observation had invented a way to create a resonating body that was so pure in its frequency response that harmonics of incredibly high frequencies could manifest in sufficient amplitude to dissociate water, given the right introductory frequency mix. Having thus explained the nature of the equipment Keely used we now come to the second hurdle. What frequencies did he use to disintegrate water. The direct quote from the book "Keely and His Discoveries" by Bloomfield Moore, published in 1893: "…………….The acceleration of these orders is governed by the introductory impulse on a certain combination of vibratory chords, arranged for this purpose in the instrument, with which Keely dissociates the elements of water, and which he calls a Liberator.

"In molecular dissociation one fork of 620 is used, setting the chords on the first octave.
"In atomic separation two forks, one of 620 and one of 630 per second; setting the chords on the second octave.
"In the etheric three forks; one of 620, one of 630, and one of 12,000; setting the chords on the third octave."

As a matter of further clarification, Keely states that you cannot DIRECTLY dissociate a single level of aggregation due to the shell structure of matter. In other words, if you wish to dissociate the Atomic level, you must first dissociate the molecular to be able to get to the atomic. That follows also if you wish to dissociate the etheric, you must disrupt the molecular AND the atomic, THEN the etheric. Keely refers to this technique as progressive dissociation. How these frequencies have sent researchers up the garden path for over 100 years. These frequencies are not in a harmonic relationship with each other. The create dis-harmony and beat frequencies all over the place, the very opposite of what Keely is saying. So why did Keely give these specific frequencies? Look at his statement again. He never said that he used them, he only said they were used to set the chords. Same thing you say. No, he is talking about something quite different. In order to understand what Keely was doing with these three tuning forks we must gain an understanding of his "vibratory microscope".

Keely's Fabled Vibratory Microscope.

I have seen diagrams of Keely's "atomic triplet" described "as seen through his vibratory microscope". It has also been said he used ultraviolet light in his microscope. Such notions are based on myth and rumour. Here is why: 1) No optical instrument can be built to look at molecular and atomic structures. At extreme magnification (the maximum usable magnification on an optical devices about 1000 times) all you will see is Brown's movement (sort of looks a little bit like sperm wriggling through spermal fluid). That is why we have Electron Microscopes to look at smaller parts, the downside being that the EM cannot look at living things as it requires the specimen to be held in a vacuum to enable the electron flow. 2) It is possible to build an optical microscope using ultraviolet light. I qoute here Stephen M. Wolniak, Professor & Interim Chairman, Department of Cell Biology & Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, who in a paper on optical microscopy says: "In the early 1950's, a UV microscope was designed, but required quartz objectives and a specialized imaging device. The quartz lenses provided slightly better resolution (dmin = 0.1 µm), but image quality suffered from an inability on the part of the manufacturers to correct for aberrations caused by the quartz." It is noteworthy here that a microscope with a conventional maximum resolution of 1000 times has a resolution of (dmin = 0.2 µm), which would make the theoretical maximum magnification in a ultraviolet microscope around 2000 times. This is a long way short of the magnification required to look at molecular and atomic structures, not to mention sub-atomic particles. 3) It is possible to use sound waves to create a visual image, but the technology is very recent and is incapable, and by the nature of the waves and the technology required always will be, of looking at small items. If you don't believe me look up the technology surrounding ultrasonic scans. Besides, in Keely's time building an ultrasonic imaging device would have been akin to building a nuclear reactor with a hammer, a screwdriver and a bit of radioactive ore, considering the technology of the day. So what then is his vibratory microscope. Is it some mysterious instrument designed by true genius and since lost to the world? Sorry guys, the mysticism will have to wait. Far from being something esoteric Keely's vibratory microscope (called vibrating microscope in some contemporary literature) was at the time standard equipment in any acoustics laboratory doing serious research. In fact Keely could not have built his machines without one. It was invented by Lissajous, a contemporary of Keely and was built and sold by Rudolph Koenig during Keely's time. The picture below is of a contemporary device (1876), now in the collection of Amherst College in Massachusetts. It is listed at 140 francs in the 1889 Koenig catalogue (Cat. No. 234i). So, how did it work and what was it used for? In his 1900 book, Sound and Music, the Rev. J. A. Zahm of Notre Dame noted that the device ".......is composed of an electric fork, attached to a solid support, and a microscope. The object of the microscope is borne by one of the prongs of the fork (in the apparatus above it is attached to the lower fork) When the fork is set into motion the objects visible in the field of the microscope seem to move in the same direction as does the fork. If now a second tuning-fork, whose prongs are perpendicular to those of the first, be caused to oscillate, a point on the second fork will appears to describe a curve, whose form will depend on the vibration-frequencies of the two forks used. If the intervals of the forks be perfect, [simple Lissajous figures] will appear... If, however, the interval be perturbed in any way by a change in the temperature of the forks, for instance, the figure is no longer constant. It immediately begins to pass through a cycle of changes... The longer the time required for effecting a complete cycle of changes, the nearer the intervals of the forks are perfect. [Consider a vibration microscope] made to execute exactly 128 vibrations per second. If ...[the figure] goes through a cycle of changes in 10 minutes, it means that our comparator executes 10x60x1828 = 76800 vibrations, while the other fork, during the same period, makes one vibration more or less than this number." From J. A. Zahm, Sound and Music, second edition (A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago, 1900) pp 418-419. The tuning forks that Keely mentions in the article about aquaeous disintegration were simply reference forks used in his vibrating microscope to enable him to tune the resonators in his "liberator" to very tight envelope tolerances, as we would say today. So what were the frequencies used, and why was a complex sound required? To get our next clues we must look at water and its structure.

Water, its Structure and its Isotopologues.

WATER (H2O) is the third most common molecule in the Universe (after H2 and CO), the most abundant substance on earth and the only naturally occurring inorganic liquid, a billion cubic kilometers of which reside in our oceans and 50 tons of which pass through our bodies in our lifetimes. It has been very well studied with a number of model structures having been proposed and refined. Notwithstanding this, extensively hydrogen-bonded liquid water is unique with a number of anomalous properties. It has commonly been stated that no single model is able to explain all of its properties. And we all thought water was the simplest of all things. Evidently not. Let's have a closer look at it. The first complication with water is that there are three different forms of hydrogen that we know of, each capable of combining with oxygen to produce a clear odourless liquid that on first inspection looks and feels like water. The first, protium (H), is the one we commonly associate with hydrogen. It has at its core only one proton. The second, deuterium (D), has one proton and one neutron at its core. In combination with oxygen it becomes D2H, which is known as heavy water. Deuterium occurs in water at about 0.015%. The third, tritium (T), has one proton and two neutrons at its core. It is radioactive and has a half life of 12.32 years. It combines with oxygen to form tritiated water T2O. The low-energy beta radiation from tritium cannot penetrate human skin, so tritium is only dangerous if inhaled or ingested. The three forms of hydrogen combine with water to form what we know as water and five isotopologues. (The isotopologue of a chemical species has at least one atom with a different number of neutrons.) This gives as the only possible combinations , all of which occur in what we call water:


H-O-H , D-O-H , T-O-H , D-O-D , T-O-D , T-O-T

This is not where the complexity stops. The following are a few selected facts from available literature:

 

The water molecule may vibrate in a number of ways. In the gas state, the vibrations involve combinations of symmetric stretch (v1), asymmetric stretch (v3) and bending (v2) of the covalent bonds.

Main vibrations of water isotopologues
Gas
v1, cm-1
v2, cm-1
v3, cm-1
H216O
3657.05
1594.75
3755.93
H217O
3653.15
1591.32
3748.32
H218O
3649.69
1588.26
3741.57
HD16O
2723.68
1403.48
3707.47
D216O
2669.40
1178.38
2787.92
T216O
2233.9
995.37
2366.61

The main stretching band in liquid water is shifted to a lower frequency (v3, 3490 cm-1 and v1, 3280 cm-1)
and the bending frequency increased (v2, 1644 cm-1) by hydrogen bonding.

Main vibrations of liquid ordinary and heavy water
Vibration
liquid H2O (25°C)
liquid D2O (25°C)
v, cm-1
E0, M-1 cm-1
v, cm-1
E0, M-1 cm-1
v2
1643.5
21.8
1209.4
17.4
v2+ libration
2127.5
3.50
1555.0
1.91
v1+v3+v2 (overtone)
3404.0
99.9
2504.0
71.5



This is what the vibratory movement looks like.



It is clear that life on Earth depends on the unusual structure and anomalous nature of liquid water. Organisms consist mostly of liquid water. This water performs many functions and it can never be considered simply as an inert diluent; it transports, lubricates, reacts, stabilizes, signals, structures and partitions. The living world should be thought of as an equal partnership between the biological molecules and water. In spite of much work, many of the properties of water are puzzling. Enlightenment comes from an understanding that water molecules form an infinite hydrogen-bonded network with localized and structured clustering. The middling strength of the connecting hydrogen bonds seems ideally suited to life processes, being easily formed but not too difficult to break. An important concept, often overlooked, is that liquid water is not homogeneous at the nanoscopic level. There is obviously much more to it, but this is what it boils down to. Water is not H-O-H, this is only a way of talking. True, for most purposes the formula holds, but it is only true for the average body of water over a longish period of time. The hydrogen atoms in water are not rigidly fixed to the oxygen atoms and have a tendency to move around and find new oxygen partners. A bit like our modern society perhaps? Even in true H2O molecules there are at least three distinct modes of vibration that have different frequencies. Water has a tendency to form clusters. Water has memory. Water can remember a structure it was forced to assume by being made to regroup in the presence of some foreign substance long after that foreign substance disappeared. (According to some scientists this explains the workability of homeopathy.) There are sixty three known anomalities of water. To go into this subject here exceeds the scope of this paper. Suffice it to say we are dealing with a complex substance that has a life of its own and often behaves in ways difficult to forecast. Therefore the dissociation of water with a vibratory stream is not an easy task and should not be undertaken lightly without reasonable safeguards especially as to explosions.

 

Keely's Theories.

In Keely's time ether theory was still in the scientific mainstream. It was not until the Michelson experiment in 1887 that the theory began losing credibility. In the 1920's most mainstream scientists rejected the concept altogether. There are many even today that still maintain the existence of the ether. Some eminent scientists, including Einstein, saw no contradiction between the contemporary model and the existence of an ether. In the end it makes no difference. The whole question whether the whole universe floats in some penultimate soup or not is purely academic, since by definition we will never be able to deal with the ether directly, it being part of the observer as well as the observed and must therefore always be hidden from view. We are still stuck with studying the observable whether the ether is there or not. Be that as it may, all of Keely's theories revolve around the ether and its properties as he saw it. This, combined with his archaic language, makes his writings impalatable to scientists and technicians of our time. Before we go into his theories as such let us remember that the theories of the alchemists led to many discoveries including gunpowder and phosphorus. The phlogiston theory, fashionable in the 18th century, led to the discovery of hydrogen (phlogisticated air) and oxygen (dephlogisticated air). Both theories are discredited today, nevertheless they had a degree of workability in their time. Theories come and go, the discoveries and technical achievements coming from them stay with us. No doubt our current theories about things will undergo profound changes as new knowledge comes to hand. Bearing that in mind let us look at how Keely saw things. The following abstract of Keely's Theories was published in "KEELY AND HIS DISCOVERIES" by Clara Bloomfield Moore in 1893. It was written by Professor Brinton with Keely's full knowledge and approval. I am using this here rather than direct quotes from Keely himself as Keely says essentially the same, but is much more difficult to read and understand because of his obscure terminology. The paper is dated 12-08-1889 (mm-dd-yy by US convention) Abstract of Keely's Physical Philosophy in its main features up to the point of practical application;
by Professor Daniel G. Brinton, of the Pennsylvania University
(subject to modifications and additions when Keely has made public his system.)

The fundamental conception of the Universe is force manifesting itself in rhythmical relations. This definition is exhaustive, including both thought and extension, matter and mind. The law for the one is the law for the other. The distinction between them is simply relative, i.e. quantitative, not qualitative. The rhythmic relations in which force acts are everywhere, under all conditions, and at all times, the same. They are found experimentally to be universally expressible by the mathematical relations of thirds. These threefold relations may be expressed with regard to their results as, I. Assimilative.
II. Individualizing.
III. Dominant or Resultant. From these three actions are derived the three fundamental; LAWS OF BEING. I. Law of Assimilation: every individualized object assimilates itself to all other objects.
II. Law of Individualization: every such object tends to assimilate all other objects to itself.
III. Law of the Dominant: every such object is such by virtue of the higher or dominant force which controls these two tendencies. Applying these fundamental laws to an explanation of the universe, as it is brought to human cognition, all manifestations of force may be treated as modes of vibrations. The essential differences give rise to the three; MODES OF VIBRATION. I. The Radiative : called also the `Dispersing,' the `Propulsive,' the `Positive,' and the `Enharmonic.'
II. The Focalizing: called also the `Negative,' the `Negative Attractive,' the `Polarizing,' and the `Harmonic.'
III. The Dominant: called also the `Etheric,' or the `Celestial.' These, it will be noted, correspond to the three laws of being. It is not to be understood that any one of these three modes of vibration can exist independently. Each by itself is called a `current,' and all three must be present in every `stream' or `flow' of force. The relations of the currents in every flow are expressible in thirds, and it is experimentally demonstrable that the relation of the three are in the order named: as 33 1/3 : 66 2/3 : 100. The evolution of what is called `matter' from the different modes of vibration is through the action of the second law, that of focalization, or `negative attraction,' or `negative affinity.' Where the vibrations under this mode meet, and are maintained in a state of mutual affinity or equilibrium, there is established what is called a `neutral centre,' or, as otherwise expressed, a centre of sympathetic coincidence. The terms `neutral attraction,' `neutral affinity,' `negative attraction,' or `polar negative attraction,' are employed to express the property of a mode of vibration to direct its components toward such centre. As no current or flow of force can be composed of one mode of vibration only, but must always be composed of three modes uniting in varying thirds, we have 1 x 2 x 3 = 6 as the total possible forms of sympathetic coincidence, or, to speak in ordinary terms, there can be six; and six only, possible forms of individualized being. These are what Keely calls the six orders of atomic subdivision, or orders of vibratory motion, and he names them as follows: I. Molecular.
II. Inter-molecular.
III. Atomic.
IV. Inter-atomic.
V. Etheric.
VI. Inter-etheric. In this last the forms of matter are arranged in the mathematical sequence of the rapidity of the oscillations of their constituent members; the proportion being proved by experiment to be as follows: for the molecular orders: 1 : 3 : 9 : 27 : 81 : 243. This arithmetical progression changes in the atomic orders to a geometrical progression as follows: 3 : 9 : 81 : 6561 : 43046721, etc. This same method of progression is believed to hold in all the orders of vibrations above the molecular, and soon passes into mathematical infinity. Actually, however, all matter of which we are capable of cognition through the medium of our senses is in one of three forms of aggregation: I. Molecular
II. Atomic
III. Etheric; in each of which the controlling mode of vibration is respectively, I. The Enharmonic
II. The Harmonic
III. The Dominant But it must be understood that each of these modes is a positive and real constituent of every atom and molecule. It will be seen that as every form of material aggregation is to be considered as a `neutral centre of attraction,' where the vibratory force of all three orders are held in `sympathetic coincidence,' that is, in balanced activity or harmonized motion, and not by any means cancelled or mutually destroyed, there is no diminution of force, but only temporary suspension of its radiating or propulsive activity or expression. This is the foundation of Keely's doctrine of `latent force,' and of the indefinite power which can be obtained by breaking up the harmonious balance or equation of forces of every mode, which exists in every `neutral centre,' that is to say in every mass of matter. Insomuch as every mass of matter consists thus, in fact, of vibrations in harmonic equilibrium, related by simple proportions of thirds, it follows that every mass of every description stands in harmonic relation to every other mass. This is, in part, what is meant by the sympathy of all forms of matter and of motion; and it is through the study of the methods of increasing or diminishing this sympathy that we reach practical results in this field of research. At present this is best accomplished by resonance ; that is, through the harmonic vibrations created by musical instruments, bringing out the acoustic world as the microscope reveals the hidden visual world. Every visible or tangible mass of matter must be regarded as an aggregation of molecules ; the molecules being the true centres of the equated forces of `neutralized attraction.' These molecules have been experimentally proved by Keely to be formed of all three modes of vibration ; the proof being that they respond to all three modes when subjected to the tests of compound concordant impulses. It is through the disturbance of this oscillatory equilibrium, by means of resonant impulses, that Keely alters the relations of the vibratory impulses which constitute matter. This he does by striking the same chord in three octaves, representing the third, sixth, and ninth of the scale. Of these, the sixth reduces the range of molecular vibrations or oscillations ; and, by thus bringing nearer to each other the neutral centres, increases solidifications. The ninth extends the range of molecular oscillation, and thus tends to give greater tenuity to the mass. It induces ` trajectile velocity ' form neutral centres, or ` neutral radiation. ' Experiment shows that molecular dissociation does not take place until the molecule attains an oscillation approaching, if not fully reaching, two-thirds of its diameter. This can be effected by means of the action of the ` enharmonic ' or ` radiating ' current applied to the mass, after its molecules have once been disturbed by an `introductory impulse; ' that is, by the musical note above mentioned. The third represents the ` dominant, ' and when brought under control of a harmonic resonant impulse induces a complete rearrangement of the modes of vibration and oscillation ; in other words, will transform the mass either into its component initial forces, or into some other form of matter. It is the study of the dominant to which Keely has devoted his recent researches. He aims to control the power he evolves by altering the dominant or etheric mode of vibration in the triplicate flows of force. As all molecules and masses are mere centres of harmonized vibrations, temporarily held in suspension by simple laws identical with those of resonance, it follows that these centres can be broken up or divided by certain orders of vibration impinging upon and disturbing them. It is a familiar fact that a cord in vibration tends to produce a similar vibration in a cord placed near it. This property belongs to all vibrations, whether resonant or not, and they exert it in proportion to the ` order ' to which they belong. The distance in space to which this power extends, or can be extended, is what is called ` the sympathetic outreach ' of the current or flow. In this manner we have ` sympathetic negative attraction, ' and ` sympathetic positive propulsion, ' with reference to the ` outreach ' of the third or dominant current of the stream, which is allied to the order of etheric vibrations. Each molecule of a given mass of matter represents the same harmonic chord or note in its oscillatory motion. The ` chord of the mass ' is, therefore, the chord of every molecule the mass. But, as the condition of absolutely stable equilibrium is theoretical only, and does not exist in nature, the chord of the mass is constantly changing. Yet we must learn to control this ` chord of the mass ' by resonant induction, if we would gain command of the molecular forces. Keely believes he has solved this problem, by the invention of a mechanical device which brings the chords of all masses within the conditions of a few simple acoustic tests. The range of molecular oscillation is affected differently in different substances when submitted to the same vibratory impulse, and these ranges can be measured. In the three metals, silver, gold, and platina, we obtain the proportions --- 3 : 6 : 9 : --- As this is the primary relation of the modes of vibration, a wire made of these three metals is peculiarly adapted to transmit concordant impulses : and nodes made of these substances placed upon a wire, transmitting resonant vibrations, indicate, by the different orders of vibration induced in them, the rate of oscillations of the atomic constituents. The phenomenon of rotation arises from the harmonic interaction of the dominant and enharmonic elements of the flow, in other words, the first and third, the third and ninth, etc; those whose vibrations bear the proportions to each other 33 1/3 : 100. A practical example of rotation is a wheel in revolution on its axis. This is force in its commercial or economic aspect. To accomplish this result by molecular vibratory action, we must gain control of the ` negative attractive ' or ` enharmonic ' current of the triple flow, and the problem is then solved up to any limit of power. So much for the good Professor. At first inspection the abstract appears quite clear. On a closer look it becomes quite obvious that Professor Brinton did not know much about music and harmonics, otherwise he would have clarified obvious ambiguities in his paper. Take for instance: Each by itself is called a `current,' and all three must be present in every `stream' or `flow' of force. The relations of the currents in every flow are expressible in thirds, and it is experimentally demonstrable that the relation of the three are in the order named: as 33 1/3 : 66 2/3 : 100. What does he mean here? Is he talking about harmonics or amplitude when he talks about the relationship between the flows? Further: This he does by striking the same chord in three octaves, representing the third, sixth, and ninth of the scale. Here he appears to be talking about harmonics. What is confusing is the term "chords". The first, sixths and ninth of a scale are harmonics of the same note. They do not represent a chord, unless he is talking about the third, sixths and ninth octave. And: It is a familiar fact that a cord in vibration tends to produce a similar vibration in a cord placed near it. This sentence does not make sense whether he means cord or chord. Then this: In the three metals, silver, gold, and platina, we obtain the proportions --- 3 : 6 : 9 : --- As this is the primary relation of the modes of vibration, a wire made of these three metals is peculiarly adapted to transmit concordant impulses : and nodes made of these substances placed upon a wire, transmitting resonant vibrations, indicate, by the different orders of vibration induced in them, the rate of oscillations of the atomic constituents. What on earth is that supposed to mean "nodes made of these substances placed upon a wire"? And finally: The phenomenon of rotation arises from the harmonic interaction of the dominant and enharmonic elements of the flow, in other words, the first and third, the third and ninth, etc; those whose vibrations bear the proportions to each other 33 1/3 : 100. Here he is talking again of either harmonics or amplitude. It would appear that the good Professor did not know what he was talking about, which is perhaps not strange since he was a medical doctor and presumably a theosophist. There is of course one other explanation and that is that Professor Brinton's paper was tampered with at the direction of the Theosophical Society who judged the knowledge he was imparting too dangerous in the "wrong hands", as evident in Helena Blavatsky's book The Secret Doctrine, Chapter 10. But more of that in my chapter on Keely and Theosophy.

From "Dashed Against the Rock" by W. J. Colville, 1894 (heavily influenced if not written by John W. Keely) Placed in the public domain on August 30, 1989 by Vanguard Sciences.

Keely's Model of Molecular Structure




Each molecule has three envelopes. The most external one may be illustrated by an india-rubber ball on which are traced a number of meridian lines.


On another ball, three envelopes are represented. The outer hemisphere of one of the envelopes is removed to show the under envelope, the outer hemisphere of which is removed in still another part of the diagram to show the inmost envelope.


A third diagram shows the position of the atoms which the rotating envelopes enclose.


A fourth diagram shows the lines of interference of the rotating envelopes. There being three perfect envelopes, these of necessity must have six poles, to which add the neutral centre of the sphere itself, comprising the origin of the septenary (7) of mysticism which is universal in nature.


The fifth diagram shows the subdivision of matter into atomic, atomolic, and atomolinic. A black disc representing a sphere shows the negative atom; two white discs also representing spheres, illustrate the two positive atoms in the triad, completing the tertiary aggregation forming the molecule. Each atom is in turn composed of three atomoles; in the negative atom are three positive atomoles, positive in the sense of activity; in the positive atom are also three atomoles, two of which are negative, i.e. passive, and one positive. The negative is always that which seeks the neutral centre; for instance, the sun is a medium for transmitting radiant energy of positive order, which all the planets receive negatively, i.e. it focalizes upon their neutral centres. This order extends to infinity.


The final diagram presented was simply intended to further elucidate the action of the rotating envelopes, illustrating the compressing force of the rotating spheral and the protection of the neutral poles. In the rotating envelopes force acts in the opposite direction to its action in the revolution of the earth, where the centrifugal action is greatest at the equator; and the greater the speed of rotation, the greater the centre-fleeing force. In the case of the etheric envelope, however, the greater the speed of rotation, the more powerful is the centripetal (centre-seeking) force which compresses the atoms within; the pressure, therefore, is greatest at the equator and gradually lessens toward the poles. If there were only one envelope, the tendency would be for the atoms to be oblate, to fly out at the poles, where the pressure is least. A beautiful provision of nature obviates this, by providing three envelopes, rotating one within the other, like three shells; the line of greatest internal pressure in each one of which being protected by the equatorial lines, the line of greatest pressure covering the line of least pressure on the others. Each of the three atoms is placed directly under one pole of each of the three envelopes. If the rotating envelope of the molecule were in any way checked in its motion, the enclosed matter would immediately burst forth, producing the phenomenon of integration, releasing from its previously pent-up condition a volume of matter many times as great as that before disintegration took place. Sound-force moving at certain rates of vibration negatizes the action of the rotating envelopes, producing conditions which result in their breaking up, followed by the separation of the atoms contained in those envelopes, and also of inter-molecular substance occupying space not taken up by the atoms. By successive orders of vibration the atoms, atomoles, and atomolini are disintegrated, and so on to the luminous order, where all control ceases. The human brain being formed of an inestimable number of spherical resonators, termed in medical science NERVE CELLS, forming the gray matter of the brain, these minute spheres take up the THOUGHT FORCE which permeates all space in endless waves, eternally active. This force we term ATOMOLIC; the cells are composed of ATOMOLES, whose vibratory motions under the action of universal THOUGHT FORCE result in the phenomena of thought, cognition, intellection, etc. Understanding this, no one should continue to feel surprise at the varying emotions and impulses of a human being in an undeveloped state, as only by developed WILL can the motions of this force be directed. The entire human economy, in the action of all its functions, assimilations, and motions, is the result of differentiation of this unitary force, all tending to supply the instrument connecting the organism with this force (the brain) with certain gases whereby it sustains its ceaseless action from birth to death: these gases supply the rotating envelopes with necessary substance for their continued activity. Were this supply cut off, death would immediately ensue; it is a fact well demonstrated that the resonating brain-structure is the first to undergo decomposition. In all embodied conditions of the manifested universe, the law of harmony reigns supreme; the cause of this manifestation is the result of the positive being stronger than the negative; the positive is everywhere the dominant order of the universe; this reality is perfectly embodied in the word I AM; it is the reason why annihilation is both inconceivable and impossible in the universe. The truth of this statement can be experimentally demonstrated; its law is found in all threefold aggregations, and there is a UNIVERSAL trinity composed of two positives and one negative. Eternal consciousness, immortal life, and an infinite order of beings is the result, whilst every provision is made in the order of creation for the happiness and enjoyment of all manifested beings. Conditions are also provided whereby satiety falls to the lot of none. The eternally conscious entity - call it by whatever name we please - moves in cycles as eternal and infinite as itself; it oscillates and vibrates perpetually and is never unconscious of any present condition, be it pain or pleasure, joy or sorrow, shame or glory; like the pendulum of a clock or the sun, moon, or tides, it swings from the one to the other of these conditions, now in pleasure, now in pain, by its contact with the extremes of all varying conditions, like a child which throws up its head and laughing for joy exclaims, I KNOW I AM.

So much for W. J. Colville, whoever he was.

For further reading on Keely's theories I have included the following dissertation, also reputedly from Colville's "metaphysical novel" Dashed against the Rock, Keely's Forty Laws of Sympathetic Vibratory Physics in the appendix.

Comments on Keely's Theories

Keely offers a philosophy, seemingly supported by his discoveries, that is coherent and elegant in its simplicity. In effect what he is saying is that the whole universe is but a manifestation of the Holy Trinity and can be understood through that principle alone. No wonder the theosophists loved him. How much of Keely's theories are an attempt to keep his funding going by telling theosophists what the wanted to hear is anyone's guess. His theories, though interesting and attractive, should not be taken too literally. The proof of a good theory, however transient, lies in its ability to lead to further knowledge and discovery. In over 120 years Keely's theories, though studied by thousands of earnest researchers, have led to nothing. That in itself is telling. If Keely's achievements are real, as I am endeavouring to show, we must look first and foremost at his machines and analyse what he has to say about his experiments and his results. In places it is helpful to look at what Keely thought had happened, but let us not focus on the religious aspect of his explanations and consider that his penultimate truth. There is no such thing as a "Sacred Science", there is only science. Keely's achievements will never be understood through his theories alone, for a start we do not know what they were. Keely's writings have mysteriously disappeared, his machines can no longer be examined, all we have are a few photographs and a few newspaper articles that can be credited with any degree of objectivity, the rest are second hand accounts by theosophists who, by their own admission, judged Keely's discoveries too dangerous to be made public. The role of the Theosophical Society is covered in my chapter on Keely and Theosophy.

Keely Explains his Motor

The following is an article written by Keely where he explains one of his motors. This is one of his later motors, perhaps the last one he ever built. I have been fortunate to find three contemporary photographs of the device. Mark Baker in the attached biography of Keely wrote: The New Science Review for April 1895 has an article discussing the action of the motor, entitled "The Operation of the Vibratory Circuit", by Mr. Keely himself. It is an almost incredible jumble of technical terms: 'molecular vibration', 'sympathetic equilibrium', 'oscillation of the atom', 'etheric disintegration','quadruple negative harmonics', 'atomic triplets'. I believe this to be the article. I omitted Part 2 of this article as it deals with magnetism and is not helpful here.

THE OPERATION OF THE VIBRATORY CIRCUIT.

(By Polar and Depolar Sympathetic Interchange,
as Associated with the Transmitter.) By JOHN W. KEELY. PART I. I have long held an opinion almost amounting to a conviction that the various forms under which the forces of matter are made manifest have one common origin; or, in other words, are so directly related and mutually dependent that they are convertible, as it were, into one another, and possess equivalents of power in their action. FARADAY. The working part of this device consists, first, of an outside ring carrying on its inside face nine pieces -- equidistant from each other --- called polar accelerators; which constitute the polar field or polar circuit. Second, another ring of less diameter, situated inside of the larger ring, and carrying on its face eight disks, with a triple grouping in each, representing the depolar field, or field of high polar interference. In the Centre is placed a resonating intensifier, through which the sympathetic currents pass. By a spiro-vibrophonic arrangement these currents are diverted toward the neutral Centre of the earth. This device is the sympathetic multiplying agent for the polar field, and the negatizing agent for the anti-polar field. When under action it is entirely subservient to the transmitter, both in regard to high intensification and thorough neutralization of polar and depolar interchange. THE PHILOSOPHY OF ITS ACTION

The circles containing the sensitized disks -- both polar and depolar - are in sympathetic relation to the polar negative circuits of the earth, and in a condition to be brought into action by the negative transmitter. The sympathetic conditions of the polar and depolar field of the circuits remain latent until the transmitter is associated and the introductory impulse given. Then conditions assert themselves which demonstrate the wonderful power of sympathetic action in abeyance to the laws by which they are governed. The introductory impulse represents the sympathetic chord of unity to polar attraction. When this is given, the polar outreach is immediately established in the polar circuit, which seeks to assimilate itself to the anti-polar, or triple groupings; but as the alternation of the two circuits represents a condition of sympathetic antagonism (as 8 is to 9), an intensified differentiated wave motion is induced between the two, thus developing eight alternations, or waves, to one revolution of the device. Consequently, an equation cannot be established on account of this negative interference, which represents the power exerted to bring about sympathetic equation between the neutral centre of terrestrial gravity and sympathetic outreach,1 the power that induces planetary suspension. Every revolution of the circuits represents eight distinct polar and depolar waves. When the maximum (five hundred revolutions per minute) is reached, there are four thousand polar and depolar interchanges. In sympathetic philosophy the polar circuit represents the brain power of the instrument, or the medium of impregnation from celestial radiating outflow; the depolar circuit represents the organism, which is actuated to do the sympathetic work as dictated by the same power, or element, 2 that virtually operates our physical organisms; the work done representing the power expended to equate the power transmitted, although the movements in the physical organism are much more complicated. The polar flow, as induced by the transmitter, is intensified or diminished by an oscillating bar which governs the revolutions to any number without variation. The aerial propeller has a sympathetic polar accumulator and disperser in one instrument, which is entirely distinct from any of the devices intended for terrestrial use; also other mechanical adjuncts not needed on land nor water. All forms of non-sympathetic machinery have, associated with them, conditions of centrifugal force on the ratio of the velocity induced; the diverging power from the centre of induction being governed specifically by its gravital weight according to the diameter it occupies in its circle of rotation. In a sympathetic negative circuit this order of conditions is reversed; for the power of neutral attraction draws the molecules of any mass, no matter what the weight, toward the centre of rotation (instead of toward its periphery) according to the intensity of the negative vibration that is induced upon that particular circle. Our earth, in its routine of revolution, is governed by the same law in every particular; its mass tending toward its centre of neutrality with a force that is equivalent to the character and velocity of its rotation. If its rotation were increased, the tendency of everything associated with it would be increased toward its centre of neutrality on the same ratio. That is, a pound in weight would, under certain conditions of increased velocity, become two pounds in weight. The laws governing the sympathetic rotation of vibratory machinery are the same laws that govern planetary suspension. To those who have not witnessed the operation of my devices, my theories must indeed seem wild; but the laws of nature are the same yesterday today and forever. They know no change; and sympathetic physics, demonstrated mechanically, must triumph over all ridicule and opposition in the end. To contradict the laws governing sympathetic rotation is to contradict the laws governing planetary suspension, as I am prepared to demonstrate. If the earth were rotated on a shaft by mechanical force, the present condition of its rotations would be reversed; everything on its surface would fly off at a tangent, on the ratio of the velocity induced. The equilibrium of all things would also be changed. The gyroscope reveals astounding facts in relation to this philosophy, even when operated mechanically. No other known device is so nearly associated with sympathetic vibratory physics. The vitalization of the disks for the polar and depolar field is established on the ratio of thirds, sixths, and ninths; the ninths being the circuit occupied by the polar field, must represent, in the scale of vitalized focalized intensity, 100 in my system: sixths in the depolar field, or 66 2/3; and in the neutral field, or thirds, 33 1/3. The triplets must represent one true chord of equation. The sympathetic transmitter transfers any degree of intensity desired from zero up to disintegration; all the transfers being made above the line of the first inaudible, as associated with my resonating system of transfer. On the sixths and ninths, in the progressive triple subdivision of the elements of water, the nearest sympathetic approach is made to the high luminous, which is the main sympathetic link to the earth's polar negative envelope, and the one whereby coordination is effected for commercial work. In short, this progressive condition establishes the necessary association between celestial radiation and terrestrial outreach, in regard to controlling the polar negative attractive force in mechanics; whether for serial navigation or for terrestrial commercial work, in all its multiplied forms. The atmospheric envelope of our earth owes its activity and its volume entirely to celestial radiating forces. Reception and dispersion are kept up by atomic and interatomic conflict between the dominant and enharmonic currents of the triune polar stream. The harmonic and enharmonic current with the dominant (in the electric stream) by their sympathetic association evolve the energy of matter. The mechanical proof of the correctness of my theories, in sympathetic or spiritual physics, is so overwhelming in its simplicity that it needs but to be witnessed to convince the most learned or the most simple mind that this system will place both science and commerce on a platform which will elevate each to a level far higher than those they now occupy.

Keely's System of Graduation

All of Keely's system revolves around the introduction of a specific, pure, tightly controlled, complex waveform into a resonating cavity.

That, believe it or not, is the be all and end all of Keely's technology.

The Premise: When specific conditions are met inside a resonating cavity a stable beam of "coherent sound" is formed, similar to a laser beam, that is capable of reaching into the heart of matter. By using the principles of an ultrasonic horn it is possible to conduct that beam along a waveguide and enable it to act upon matter outside the confines of the generating chamber.

More of that in the chapter on ultrasonic horns. I am only including it here to show why the system of graduation is vital. Keely insists that three flows need to be generated that are in precise relationship to each other as to frequency and amplitude. This is unbelievably difficult to achieve by acoustic means alone. Going back to my earlier simplified model of his liberator, disintegrator or whatever else he chose to call it from time to time, we see clearly the approach taken by Keely. Although we do not have any photographs of the inside of the small spherical device he used in later experiments we do have explicit photos of earlier devices that operate on the same principle and were used for the same purpose. Because of that we can form a fairly precise picture of what its internal adjuncts looked like. It all boils down to this: 1) An external set of resonators that can be excited by either acoustic or mechanical means.
2) A resonating cavity.
3) An internal set of resonators that are activated through resonance by the pressure waves generated by the outside resonators and conducted through the structure itself.
4) A wave guide capable of transporting the collimated waveform to an outside point to act upon. The successful operation of the device relies on resonance alone. That means that all component parts of the device must be in harmonic relationship to each other without interference and without the introduction of incompatible frequencies. It also means that all parts must be tuned with utmost precision. Quite a feat! But it does not stop there. In order to manipulate the amplitude of specific frequencies in relation to the others multiple resonators for each flow are required. They also must be tuned with utmost precision, otherwise they will generate beat frequencies. Keely informs us that the sympathetic concordance must be so precise that tuning alone is not enough. The nearest approach to molecular uniformity in metallic masses is in the wire drawn for commercial uses, gold and platina being the nearest to freedom from differentiation. But even these wires, when tested by a certain condition of the first order of intensified molecular vibration, for a transferring medium between centres of neutrality, I find to be entirely inadequate for the transfer of concordant unition, as between one and the other, on account of nodal interferences. We can appreciate the difficulty of converting such a medium to a uniform molecular link, by knowing that it can be accomplished only by removing all nodal interference, by inducing between the nodal waves a condition in which they become subservient to the inter-sympathetic vibratory molecular link of such structure or wire. Therefore, it is necessary to submit the wire to a system of graduation in order to find what the combined chords of these nodal interferences represent when focalized to one general centre. Then the differentiation between these nodal waves and the inter-molecular link must be equated, by what I call a process of vibratory induction, so as to induce pure concordance between one and the other. To elaborate on this system of graduation, for effecting conditions necessary to ensure perfect and unadulterated transmission, would make up a book that would take days to read and months to study. The graduating of a perfectly constructed instrument to a condition to transmit sympathetically, is no standard whatever for any other one that may be built, nor ever will be, because no concordant conditions of compound molecular aggregation can ever exist in visible groupings. If it were even possible to make their parts perfectly accurate one to the other, in regard to atmospheric displacement and weight, their resonating qualities would have a high rate of sympathetic variation in their molecular groupings alone. If one thousand million of coins, each one representing a certain standard value, and all struck from the same die, were sympathetically graduated under a vibratory subdivision of 150,000, the most amazing variation would present itself, as between each individual coin throughout the number, in regard to their molecular grouping and resonance. KEELY. The above passage makes it clear that after precise tuning his components must be subjected to a vibratory stream to bring about a more favourable molecular structure free of nodal interferences.

 

So what was Keely's procedure? From isolated bits he discloses here and there I believe we can assemble a fairly accurate picture of what he did. In drawn wires and tubes as well as in spun shells a certain amount of molecular alignment is already achieved by the manufacturing process. Not so in cast components or in components that have been shaped, say by bending a tube or rolled strip into a ring. In order to produce a certain degree of uniformity Keely used a process of annealing. He heated the components to cherry red heat and then cooled them down very slowly in a sand bath. The sand had been preheated to the same temperature as the component in order to avoid thermal shock. It is a well known technique to create uniformity and eliminate internal stresses. Keely describes the process in one of his elucidations. Having achieved uniformity as far as the manufacturing process allows he now proceeds to tune his components to the required frequencies. By using a vibrating microscope he would have been able to tune them to a precision better than 1 Hertz. Even that was not enough for his purposes. He then subjected his components to a vibratory stream for extended periods of time. This was to achieve a better, more favourable molecular structure. As stated earlier, I believe he used a wind chest, some organ pipes and compressed air to generate the frequencies required for as long as necessary. The final adjustment after mounting was achieved by adjusting diaphragms in some of the resonators of his motor. Acoustic feedback was controlled by dampening some resonators with small tubes of gum. As sophisticated as the system was there must have still been some unwanted frequencies occurring which Keely controlled with special resonators that directed a "negatising vibration" at them. Just how he achieved the required phase shift by purely acoustic means is unclear to me at this stage. He talks about it though in places. This I believe is in essence Keely's system of graduation. Today there are far more precise and less cumbersome methods available to achieve the same effects, something that I will go into in the chapter on "Design of a Keely Device using Modern Technology", which at the moment exists only in note form.

Keely's "Fraud"

Quotes from the Contemporary Press

After Keely died on Nov. 18, 1898, suspicious skeptics and newspaper reporters did a careful examination of his laboratory. Some of Keely's machinery had already been removed by "believers" who hoped they could make it work.

A Boston electrician, Burton Kinraide, removed the engine to his home at Jamaica Plains. Some of the apparatus ended up in England. No one could make it function as it had in Keely's laboratory. The secret was not in the machines; the secret was in the laboratory building itself.

Engineer Alexander Scott and Mrs. Moore's son, Clarence, examined the building, accompanied by press and photographers. False ceilings and floors were ripped up to reveal mechanical belts and linkages to a silent water motor in the basement (two floors below the laboratory). A system of pneumatic switches under the floor boards could be used to turn machinery on and off. A three-ton sphere was found in the basement, apparently a reservoir for compressed air. The walls, ceilings and even apparently solid beams were found to have hidden pipework. The evidence of fraud on a grand scale was obvious and undeniable. What's really remarkable is that Mrs. Moore had persuaded a number of apparently respectable scientists to observe Keely's demonstrations, and some of them affirmed that they were impressed, and even convinced that Keely had made revolutionary scientific discoveries. Why were some so easily duped by Keely's obvious (though very elaborate) deceptions, which were correctly guessed by more perceptive and skeptical observers? Of course, it must be stated that Keely never allowed anyone to examine his machines, independently test them, or even look inside of them. Even today, scam artists promoting energy machines can find at least a few degree-holding engineers or physicists willing to declare publicly that they found no fraud or deception in the machines and who are convinced that new scientific principles are at work. So much for "expert witnesses". Keely had kept his company going for 26 years without ever putting a product on the market, paying a dividend or revealing his secrets. That's his one undisputed accomplishment. He never divulged his secrets with anyone, so far as we know. One close friend reported that he had once asked Keely "John, what do you want for an epitaph?" His answer: "Keely, the greatest humbug of the nineteenth century."


The evidence that this equipment existed is undeniable. The conclusion that Keely used compressed air to operate his machines appeared to be proven and history has left it at that. But is it true? I do not think so. The evidence speaks against it. We have detailed and explicit photographs of some of Keel's motors in assembled and disassembled states. There is nothing in his motors for compressed air to act upon. The very people that cried fraud were at the time in possession of his motors. It would have been a simple matter to disassemble them and show the driving mechanism (some air turbine or some piston arrangement). Photos of such an arrangement would have convinced the sternest sceptics. No such proof was forthcoming. It simply did not exist. So is there another reason for the existence of the compressed air equipment and can we after all this time reconstruct what it was used for based on existing evidence alone. I believe I have found the answer to that puzzle. I have talked at length about the necessity of bringing about structural changes in the materials of his resonators in order to achieve pure resonant frequencies free from nodal interferences. Keely tells us that this is achievable through subjecting his resonators to a stream of "pure concordant harmonies", an essential part in his system of "graduation". This stream had to be kept up for extended periods of time to bring about the re-arrangement, at least weeks, if not months. So, how did he do it? Today it would be a simple matter. Connect a series of phase locked loops to an amplifier, and a speaker. Put the speaker into some sort of soundproof box to eliminate rogue frequencies from the environment, mount his resonators to be graduated inside the box and let the thing run for the time required. But Keely did not have access to that kind of technology. How then could the same effect be achieved with the technology of the day? Again we must look to Rudolph Koenig and his scientific apparatus. Koenig calls his device in his catalogue "Wind Chest"

Koenig's Wind Chest

The way it operates is simple. On top of a hollow box are mounted one or more organ pipes. The box is connected to an air supply and voila an audio generator capable of generating complex waveforms that will work as long as the air supply is kept up. Notice the air supply at the back and the organ stops in the front. Of course you can have as many pipes as you want as long as the wind chest is big enough. This explains the water motor, the compressed air sphere and the pipes leading into his workshop.

There really was no other way of doing it in Keely's time.

Keely's use of Thirds

Throughout his writings Keely continually talks about the necessity of tuning his resonators to "thirds" in order to achieve the effects he is after. So what are the "thirds"? Unfortunately here is where it gets complicated. In music the term can apply to three different conditions:

1) Third octave 2) Third harmonic 3) Major Third, Minor Third

So, what are they and which one is he referring to?

Third Octave

Third octave is clear. This is simply fundamental frequency x 2 x 2 C = 256 (1st octave) C = 512 (2nd octave) C =1024 (3rd octave) He often refers to first, third, sixth and ninth octaves.

Third Harmonic

He also refers to frequencies relating to each other in the ratio of 33 1/3 : 100. Clearly here he means harmonic thirds. The third harmonic is the fundamental frequency multiplied by 3 or one third the wavelength of the fundamental.

Major Third

A Major third is a musical interval that is the fundamental frequency multiplied by 5 and divided by 4. The two notes combined constitute a pure harmonic chord. A pure harmonic chord in many keys can only be produced by using an enharmonic keyboard or on a violin where there are no fixed positions for the notes. He talks about the use of enharmonic scales. He also talks about the use of E double flat, a clear indication that he is talking about a major enharmonic fifth interval in the scale of B flat, which he mentions also. This is where it gets confusing. Keely uses the term thirds in conjunction with all three assuming that the reader has sufficient musical knowledge to tell which one is meant. Since we often have only short quotes of what Keely actually said we can only guess in what context the word third applies.

Increasing Amplitude

As if that is not enough in some of his writings the term applies to amplitude rather than frequency. One of the first things we notice by studying Keely's machines in the large number of resonators he is using. Far too many to construct say a chord in three octaves, For that he would have needed only nine, three for each octave. So why did he use so many? Keely worked with acoustic resonators to generate his waveforms. Say he was using the chord C major, i.e. C - E - G. The interval between C and E is a major third, the interval between E and G is a minor third the interval between C and G a perfect fifth. E3 and G3 are the 3rd and 5th harmonics of C1. The three notes being struck simultaneously results in each note contributing harmonically to the sound created, achieving overtones further into the spectrum (i.e. of higher frequencies) than that Note C could have achieved on its own regardless of amplitude (volume). Keely was after very high frequencies, far higher than the note could have achieved on its own with effect. It is believed overtones stretch into infinity albeit with much reduced volume. So how do you increase the volume of overtones far into the spectrum? In order to increase the amplitude of the overtones he had to increase the amplitude of the notes contributing to it. There was only one way he could do it with the technology of the day. He did what organ builders had been doing for centuries. As I said earlier, an organ pipe either goes full blast or is silent, there are no in-betweens. There is only one way and that is to add more pipes of the same construction and pitch. That is why large organs have over 5000 pipes. No typing error, they can really have that many. Keely did the same with his resonators. Here something interesting occurs. If you add one more pipe you increase the volume by 100%. Or by a factor of two. Adding one more you increase the original volume by a factor of three and so on. See what I mean? The volume increase follows the same arithmetic progression as the harmonics. This where Keely parted company with contemporary acoustics. His machines exhibited not only precise mathematical relationships between the notes, but also in their relative amplitude. I consider this a vital aspect in the overall design of his machines. I have in all my research never come across a comment that mentions that fact.

The Scale of B-flat and its Importance.

The only scale that Keely mentions in his writings is the scale of B-flat. It appears strange that no other scale is ever mentioned considering the man was doing research into harmonic relationships, musical intervals and chords. Her are two of the many occurrences to give an illustration what I mean: The only two vibratory conditions that can be so associated as to excite high sympathetic affinity, as between two physical organisms, are: - Etheric chord of B flat, 3rd octave, and on Etheric sympathetic chords transmission
Eb on the scale 3rd, 6ths and 9ths; octaves harmonic;
having the 3rd dominant; the 6th enharmonic, and the 9th diatonic. The chord mass representing the musical sphere, being the sympathetic etheric chord of B flat third octave………………
KEELY Example.- Suppose that we had just received from the machine shop a spun shell of twelve inches internal diameter, 1-32 of an inch thick, which represents an atmospheric volume of 904'77 cubic inches. On determination by research we find the shell to be on its resonating volume B flat, and the molecular volume of the metal that the sphere is composed of B natural. This or any other antagonistic chord, as between the chord mass of the shell and its atmospheric volume, would not interfere, but would come under subservience. We now pass a steel shaft through its centre, ½ inch in diameter, which represents its axial rest. This shaft submits the atmospheric volume of the shell to a certain displacement or reduction, to correct which we first register the chord note of its mass, and find it to be antagonistic to the chord mass of the shell, a certain portion of an octave. This must be corrected. The molecular volume of the shaft must be reduced in volume, either by filing or turning, so as to represent the first B flat chord that is reached by such reduction. When this is done the first line of interference is neutralized, and the condition of sympathy is as pure between the parts as it was when the globe was minus its axis. There is now introduced on its axis a ring which has seven tubes or graduating resonators, the ring being two-thirds the diameter of the globe, the resonators three inches long and ¾ inch diameter, each one to be set on the chord of B flat, which is done by sliding the small diaphragm in the tube to a point that will indicate B flat. This setting then controls the metallic displacement of the metallic combination, as also of the arms necessary to hold the ring and resonators on shaft or axis. Thus the second equation is established, both on resonation and displacement. We are now ready to introduce the diatonic scale ring of three octaves which is set at two-thirds of the scale antagonistic to the chord mass of the globe itself, which is done by graduating every third pin of its scale to B flat thirds, which represent antagonistic thirds to the shell's molecular mass. This antagonism must be thoroughly sensitive to the chord-mass of one of the hemispheres of which the globe is composed. The axis of the scale-ring must rotate loosely on the globe's shaft without revolving with the globe itself, which it is prevented from doing so by being weighted on one side of the ring by a small hollow brass ball, holding about two ounces of lead. The remaining [Page 13] work on the device is finished by painting the interior of the globe, one hemisphere black and one white, and attaching a rubber bulb, such as is used to spray perfume, to the hollow end of the shaft. This bulb equates vibratory undulations, thus preventing an equation of molecular bombardment on its dark side when sympathetically influenced. It is now in condition to denote the sympathetic concordance between living physical organisms, or the receptive transmittive concordance necessary to induce rotation. KEELY. So, is there something special about the use of B-flat or is it simply that he started his work using B-flat in his first machine and found it too cumbersome to change all his graduating instruments, tuning forks, reference forks in his vibratory microscope and so forth over to some other key? It certainly would have been easier to continue in the same key, rather than re-calibrating everything. And, if that was not the reason, what other reason could there be? An added complication is that we do not know what Keely's B-flat means in terms of frequency. Easy you say, go to a piano, the black key between A and B is B-flat. Actually, it isn't. Aside from the fact that on the tempered scale we are using B-flat and A-sharp are the same note, when in reality they are two different notes that have been adjusted to a common denominator to make playing easier there is the question of concert pitch. So what is a concert pitch and why is it important? In order for any number of musical instruments to be able to play together and sound harmonious they all must be tuned to the same pitch. The concert pitch is an agreed upon arbitrary value that acts as a reference point to which all instruments are tuned. In common use today is A=440, that means that the A above middle C has a frequency of 440 cycles per second or Hertz. Though common in English speaking countries it is by no means universal. Continental Europe uses A=442 whereas Germany, Austria and China use A=445. But that standard was first proposed in 1939 and only introduced in 1955 when the International Standards Association adopted A=440 as ISO16. In other words long after Keely's time. So, to what pitch did Keely tune his machines? We don't know. It cold have been anything between 435 and 445, though there were concert piches around in the 19th century that were outside even that wide range. Bearing that in mind let us choose the midpoint between these values as a starting point in our examination. If we now create a Pythagorean diatonic scale around A=440 we get about 261.12 for middle C. going down six octaves we get around C=4.08. Now we make a startling discovery.On the scale C=4.08 B-flat becomes 7.25333 and B-natural becomes 7.74562. These are almost exactly the accepted boundary values of the Schumann Resonance, the resonant frequency of earth! Curiously enough these are also the frequency band of alpha brain waves associated with elation and religious feelings. See for yourself in the attached spreadsheet. Coincidence? Perhaps not. Keely was evidently aware of having tapped into some field or other as the following comments of his show. "It is only necessary to ascertain the terrestrial chord masses to be able to run sympathetic machinery. When I have mastered these mechanical difficulties I shall be able to control this most subtle force." and "All diversion from the polar terrestrial envelope are but nodal outreaches, induced by the proper order of sympathetic vibration; not dissociations and associations of sympathy; but operating on the same principle as the outflow, or nodal outreach of the mental organism toward the physical, in its control over it. and "It is through the action of nature's sympathetic forces that planets are born and their volume of matter augmented. If the sympathetic, negative polar stream were cut off from the earth, its molecular mass would become independent, and would float away into space as would a soap bubble filled with warm air. and Though alternate active energy could be evolved in a cubic inch of steel, by the proper sympathetic exciter, to do the work of a horse, by its sympathetic association with the polar force in alternate polarization and depolarization. This is the power that I am now getting under control to do commercial work. In other words, I am making a sympathetic harness for the polar terrestrial force." KEELY, 1892. In 1893, Keely, in reply to the question, "What do you include in the polar force?" answered, "Magnetism, electricity, and gravital sympathy; each stream of force composed of three currents which make up the governing conditions of the controlling medium of the universe. The ninths which I am now endeavoring to graduate to a sympathetic mechanical combination will, if I succeed, close my researches in sympathetic physics, and complete my system." Within the year the announcement was made that Keely had completed this graduation, with entire mechanical success, "hooking his machinery on to the machinery of nature." Perhaps that explains where the surplus energy came from in his machines. If he created a resonant circuit that was absorbing energy from the earth's field that would make sense. That the so created resonant field would drag in other streams of energy on one of the harmonics of the fundamental is also feasible. In fact Keely talks about this. This is a quote from a contemporary article on his airship: At an early period of Keely's researches, on the lines suggested by the distinguished professor of the Bonn University, Dr. Hertz, viz., of the conditions governing the operation in nature of the unknown energy he was dealing with, Keely wrote to a friend: "It appears, in my researching experiments, quite evident to me, that under different orders of progressive vibration, when the sixth order is reached on the positive, a condition presents itself in an accompanying agent that adds to the etheric flow a very peculiar action. I call this third agent its sympathetic attendant." Maybe all that Keely was doing was to use the earth's frequency as some sort of carrier wave. I am not saying that is the case, but to me it appears as a promising area of research that should be undertaken.

The Role of Acoustic Feedback in Keely's Machines

Acoustic feedback, as we understand it today, was an unknown phenomenon in Keely's time. So, how does this subject get into the equation? Looking at Keely's motors there is evidence that acoustic feedback was occurring in his devices and that he tried to deal with the problems created by it without ever completely understanding what he was up against. In my view his failure to bring the phenomenon under control accounts for most, if not all, of the problems he encountered. But before we lock at his machines let us briefly examine what feedback, especially regenerative feedback, is and how it applies here. Acoustic feedback, also known as the Larsen effect, is the result of coupling a portion of the output signal back to the input of an amplifier.



We all have noticed the phenomenon when a microphone is placed too close to a loudspeaker by a musician and the whole system starts to howl in an ever increasing pitch and volume. What happens is that some frequencies get reinforced by the added input, generating harmonics that were inaudible before to a level where they get also reinforced and so on, creating runaway frequencies that are impossible to control once they have started. As undesirable as the phenomenon is in, say a concert hall, it has been used beneficially in radio receivers to amplify and enhance the input signal. When radio first started it was the humble detector circuit complete with a galena crystal that enabled reception. The signal was weak. After Edison discovered that electrons flowed from a heated filament to a positively charged plate in an evacuated light bulb Dr. Lee deForest, successfully introduced a third element -the grid-between the filament and the plate, creating the triode. By feeding the received signal to the grid and applying a voltage between the filament and the plate the stronger flow could be controlled by the weak input signal (hence the word valve), which made it possible to amplify the incoming radio signal. In 1913 the brilliant Armstrong Howard, while still a student, fed part of the output of the triode back into its input in an effort to improve radio reception. He called the process he called "regenerative feedback." It greatly amplified the signal and, if enough feedback was applied to the input, it also acted as an oscillator.

Keely did not use valves, they were not even on the horizon then, so how could he have struck acoustic feedback? The clue lies in the construction of his motors.

His motor consists, as you can see in the photograph, of two devices, the liberator and the motor proper which are connected by a wire made from silver, gold and platinum. Both devices, as well as the wire were tuned to a specific frequency with almost unbelievable precision. In addition special resonators were mounted on the devices to ensure maximum resonance. These resonators he calls his diatonic scale. They are clearly visible here. Below are close ups of the liberator with the diatonic scale and the scale on its own.

Now we have both, the equivalent of a microphone (liberator) connected a loudspeaker (motor). All we need is some additional energy feeding into the system and we have a closed feedback loop. Keely claimed that his liberator provided that additional energy, after all that was the whole idea of the thing. If the arrangement performs the way Keely claimed we have now a real feedback problem. The uncontrolled runaway frequencies created by this arrangement would account for Keely's inability to control the speed of his motor and the sudden reversals. From what I can make out his motors only ever ran for very short periods of time. Keely was not unaware of the problem, though in my estimation never understood what he was up against and only partially controlled the phenomenon in a somewhat crude fashion. In one explanation of the procedure required to get his motor to run he says:........... The localization to the neutral centre is then established by dampening the steel rods, on the scale at the back, representing the thirds, sixths, and ninths, drawing a piece of small gum tube over them, which establishes harmony to the chord mass of the instrument. Concordance is thus effected between the disintegrator and the ninths of the scale at base of transmitters with telephonic head. In my view dampening the resonators with gum tubing was his attemt to reduce the feedback without eliminating it, thereby gaining the advantage of further amplification and achieving enhanced amplitude for the higher frequencies.

NOTE: For the amplification to occur the signal that is fed back into the circuit must be in phase with the incoming signal.That means that in Keely's arrangement the length of the wire or tube connecting the two devices is critical. Because the incoming signal travels along the waveguide there is a time delay before it reaches the motor. The feedback signal travels along the same waveguide in the opposite direction also incurring a time delay. The length of the wire or tube must be so calculated that the two signals are in phase at all times at the point of origin.

Keely and Theosophy

It is impossible to talk about the Theosophical Society without mentioning Helena Blavatski , the two being virtually synonymous. There are a number of biographies of her available that appear to have only one thing in common. The all vary wildly from each other in important detail. I quote here Matthew Mulligan Goldstein, University of Texas, who seems to put it into a nutshell in his introduction. Although familiar to Yeats scholars for the impression made on the young poet by her peculiar brand of occultism, Helena Petrovna "Madame" Blavatsky (1831-1891) remains for most critics and historians an obscure, if vaguely absurd, figure. The Ukrainian-born aristocrat, accounts of whose life prior to her 1873 arrival in the US are notoriously unreliable, founded the Theosophical Society in New York on September 18, 1875. The charter of the Theosophical Society, the brainchild of Blavatsky and an American traveling companion, Henry Steel Olcott, established the group to teach westerners the value of Asian religions, promote worldwide brotherhood, and "collect and diffuse knowledge of the laws which govern the universe." And further in his paper: The adventures Blavatsky is said to have had before passing through Ellis Island include a brief hitch with Garibaldi's troops in Sicily during Italy's war of unification, an adulterous affair with the great Russian tenor Mitrovich, and an apprenticeship with a shadowy band of Egyptian mystics known as the Brotherhood of Luxor.
Blavatsky returned from her globetrotting with a philosophy cobbled together from, among other places, pharonic wisdom texts, Sanskrit poetry, and renaissance neoplatonist tracts, and attempted to launch a movement of intellectuals and religious thinkers devoted to truth-seeking through supernaturalism. Her exotic, Orientalized approach to spiritualist teachings went over exceptionally well, for a while, in both the US and, later, England, where by the 1870s table-rapping, materializations, and planchette-manipulation were rapidly falling out of fashion with the darkened-parlor set.
Her massive 1877 treatise on occult knowledge, Isis Unveiled, most of which Blavatsky claimed to have channeled while in a trancelike state, went through three press runs of a thousand copies apiece the year it was published, and it has since sold half a million copies to date. Well substantiated charges that Blavatsky plagiarized much of the work has done little over the course of the last century to slow its sales.
She moved to India, landing at Bombay Feb 16 1879. By 1882 the Theosophical Society became an international organization, and it was at this time that she moved the headquarters to Adyar near Madras, India. The following quote is from a pamphlet of the Theosophical Society (undated): In 1884, while Blavatsky was traveling in Europe, disgruntled TS employees in India went to the missionaries with forged documents, bringing charges of fraud against her. The Society for Psychical Research (SPR) then sent Richard Hodgson to investigate the charges, and subsequently published an unfavorable report. Under the strain, Blavatsky's health had broken down, and in 1885 she left India for Europe, where she continued to write The Secret Doctrine, her masterwork. In 1887 she settled in London, and began a new magazine Lucifer ("Light-bringer"). In 1888 The Secret Doctrine was published and, in the same year, aided by W. Q. Judge, she formed the Esoteric Section of The Theosophical Society. Shortly afterwards she wrote The Key to Theosophy and The Voice of the Silence. In 1890 she became head of a newly-established European Section. She died in London on May 8, 1891 after many years of chronic illness. This is a rough and ready biography cobbled together from the bits where most biographers agree. It is fair to say that even in the most sympathetic biographies Helena Blavatsky does not come across as a very nice person. She was ruthless, autocratic, secretive, power hungry, manipulative and outright dishonest. She was also articulate and highly intelligent. Her command of English was excellent, considering she learned the language in a later stage of her life. She swore like a trooper, chainsmoked cigarettes, indulged in marijuana frequently and was prone to throw temper tantrums and suffer psychotic or neurotic episodes. Although she was known to have affairs, some adulterous, was married twice and had a child, a hunchbacked son who died at the age of five, by her lover she maintained in later years that she was still a virgin. Just shy of sixty, she died on May 8, 1891, after years of chronic illness caused by her obesity and lifestyle. In Keely's time she was the undisputed leader of the Theosophical Society. Her word was law and in many ways still is after all these years. She preyed on the gullible, the desperate and the confused who saw in her the master who would lead them out of strife and into enlightenment. If her followers were wealthy, so much the better. They were singled out for special treatment. For Blavatsky occultism was the road to unimaginable power and eventual immortality. It is evident from her writings that she felt that there was occult knowledge "out there" that would open that road for her if only she could get her hands on it. Her approach was simple and brilliant. She appointed the Theosophical Society, and thereby herself, as the guardian of occult knowledge on Earth. Using the organisation and the wherewithal of her wealthy clients she acquired by any means possible anything that was deemed of interest. The Theosophical Society has one of the largest collections of occult material on the planet, possibly rivalling the collection held by the Vatican. Some of this collection is available to members for study. Much of it, the really interesting stuff, is only accessible to members that are deemed sufficiently advanced and worthy of specific materials that are strictly controlled by the inner group. I have it on good authority that there is also one section that is locked up for all until some awaited cosmic event takes place, perhaps the return of Helena Blavatsky. The masses are fed the usual garbage, mostly writings by Blavatski herself, Charles Leadbeater, who was for sometime exiled to Ceylon because of his naughty habit of introducing little boys to the art of masturbation and was later readmitted to the society for whatever reason I cannot make out, Alice Bailey, whose voluminous incomprehensible works bear the following disclaimer "The books that I have written are sent out with no claim for their acceptance. They may, or may not, be correct, true and useful. It is for you to ascertain their truth by right practice and by the exercise of the intuition", Annie Besant, ex Women's Liberationist, Fabianist and Marxist who turned to Theosophy in 1889 after meeting Blavatsky and became her successor after Blavatsky's death in 1891, and of course Clara Bloomfield Moore. Keely was a God-sent for Blavatski. His machines and his explanations were in line with her own thinking and she firmly believed he was uncovering the secret of ultimate power. This she wanted for herself. I am certain it was Blavatski that that convinced Clara Bloomfield-Moore to fund Keely when he looked like going bankrupt. In today's money Bloomfield-Moore funded Kelly to the tune of many millions. We know that Keely wrote several treatises, all of which have disappeared. Bloomfield-Moore lists some of them in her book and quotes from others. Helena Blavatski quotes from the same sources. It is evident that the Theosophical Society was in possession of these texts at the time or both these ladies could not have written what they did. Ask about them today and the Society will deny having any such material. Stuff like that does not get lost in the archives of the Theosophical Society. It is further evident that the Theosophical Society had and still has a vested interest in suppressing Keely's work. In Chapter X of The Secret Doctrine by Madame Blavatsky it is made perfectly clear how powerful Keely's discoveries are and why they must be suppressed by any means possible. I have included the chapter unedited save for the highlighting of the relevant passages. It is noteworthy here that everything we know about Keely, apart from newspaper articles and a few photographs has come to us via the Theosophical Society, suitably edited I should judge. More of that in my chapter What Happened to Keely's Work.

 

What Happened to Keely's Work

After Keely's death in November 1898 his machines and papers were packed and sent to Thomas Burton Kinraide in Boston. Kinraide had been a friend of Keely's and was well acquainted with Keely's work. He was an electrical engineer with several patents to his name, a thriving business with high tension coils of his own design that were used in X-ray equipment and sold in many countries. He had an excellent reputation. He also had his own research laboratory in Boston and appears to have been a prominent citizen. On the 4th of January 20 boxes with the papers and machines arrived in Boston for his evaluation, an event that was duly noted in the press. Shortly thereafter the exposure of Keely's Fraud was published a move that was openly criticised by Kinraide. I cannot find out what it was that Kinraide said, but it must have been quite severe to force Ransom Bridge, who was evidently involved in the exposure to go to the press and offer an explanation in answer to Kinraide's criticism. The attached clipping is dated Jan 30th. About a week later an article was published noting that Kinraide had raised a number of concerns with the directors regarding the exposure and that two directors would come to Boston to discuss matters. The next clippings, one undated and one dated May 7th, report that Kinraide had distanced himself from the project and would send all the material he had received back to the company. It would appear that Kinraide did not want to risk his reputation and his thriving business by being associated with what had become a major scandal. He evidently did what he had said for nothing more is heard of him in connection with the Keely affair as it would have been had he kept what was clearly not his property. The newspaper clippings and photograph published here come from Jeff Behary who has done a lot of excellent research on Kinraide and his achievements.
More on this amazing man can be found on Jeff's site: The Turn Of The Century Electrotherapy Museum Thanks Jeff. After that nothing more is heard about the 20 boxes except some rumour that they had been shipped to London. This is perfectly believable since Clara Bloomfield-Moore had an obvious claim on them and she was resident in London at the time. From there they would have been locked up by the Theosophical Society on the direction of Annie Besant as being too dangerous for public disclosure. The society would have also collected by one means or another any other original work by Keely they could lay their hands on. They must have done an excellent job world wide for there is hardly anything left. At that time Annie Besant was the well established head of the organisation. In spite of her cute name and her innocent looks she was high spirited, pragmatic and radical in her views and very effective in everything she did. Totally ruthless when it came to her convictions she used her position in the Theosophical Society to the limit.

She was also a fighter, creating India's first political party called the Home Rule League, organised demonstrations, public meetings and political agitations and subsequently spent some time in gaol, locked up by the British for her activities in the independence movement.

Because of a massive outcry, led by, amongst others, Mahatma Ghandi, the British were forced to release her, sparking massive jubilations all over India. She actually was president of India's Congress Party for a year, not bad going for an Irish girl who had avocated home rule for Ireland all her life and had done all she could to foster a similar idea in India.

It is a little known fact that Ghandi was given the title Mahatma, meaning Great Soul, by Annie Besant, a name by which he will be forever known to history. So is the fact that Nehru, India's first Prime Minister was educated by a theosophist tutor.

Annie Besant died in Adyar, India in 1933.

Sonoluminescence

The following article I found on the net. Unfortunately I have not yet been able to find out its author and cannot give credit, which is evidently due, because the article is telling and accurate. It is true that Keely does talk about the phenomenon, which is interesting, because it was not until 1934 that it was re-discovered at the University of Cologne as a result of work on sonar. But no more comment, here it is: SONOLUMINESCENCE Keely's work also involved the idea that when water was vibrated at certain frequencies, visible light would emerge within it. He tied this in with the properties of sound to harness the aetheric energies. This phenomenon has now been duplicated through an experiment that is known as "Sonoluminescence." In this experiment, a spherical flask that is filled with water is vibrated at a certain frequency, low in pitch but very high in strength. In the below image we see a simple laboratory setup for this process, with the spherical flask in a clamp and high-intensity speakers mounted to either side of the sphere, with red power wires attached.
Photo from William Andrew Steer's laboratory research.
When the speakers are running, this arrangement causes a sonic force to be directed towards the exact center of the sphere that the flask makes. Then, the scientist must introduce an air bubble into the water and carefully try to manipulate it into the center that the sound forces are pressing towards. Once an air bubble is properly fixed into the center, the vibrations will allow it to stay there, and an amazing thing happens; it starts emitting light. At first, the scientists studying this believed that the light was constant, but now it has been shown through delicate measurements to be pulsating at a very rapid speed. The next image below shows a much more high-tech setup, where the spherical flask is housed within a special apparatus that obscures most of the flask from view. No conventional explanation for why this might be happening exists, and many scientists have tried to explain it in conventional models. The most popular idea is that the extreme forces of sound create nuclear fusion, thus leading to the humorous term "the Star in a Jar." However, this flies completely in the face of the experiment itself, since the more that the water is cooled, the more light you get! By cooling the water, the amount of molecular vibration in it decreases, thus making it even easier for the sound vibrations to resonate purely. Other conventional explanations for sonoluminescence sound equally absurd. However, we do know for a fact that the bubble inside shrinks significantly in size every time that a pulse of light is released, and this is occurring at extremely fast rates of speed. It is believed that this collapse creates such intense pressure that great energy is released, but the source of this energy remains a mystery to the mainstream.
Photo from an article by Aaron Levinson.

Although John Keely mentioned this phenomenon in his own work, general credit is given to H. Frenzel and H. Schultes at the University of Cologne in 1934 as being the first to discover this. They were using very strong ultrasonic fields in water as part of their wartime research in marine acoustic radar. Although they were not looking for or expecting such results, they discovered to their surprise that clouds of unpredictable and non-synchronous flashing bubbles of light were formed in the water in front of them. This is now known as "multi-bubble sonoluminescence" or MBSL. Little was done to advance this study until 1988, when D. Felipe Gaitan was able to trap a single bubble at the center of a flask that was vibrating at its own acoustic resonance level, and sonoluminescence was then seen. Once Gaitan accomplished this effect, he became rather disinterested in pursuing it further, and Dr. S. Putterman et al. subsequently picked it up at UCLA, California. It was Putterman et al.'s research that determined that the internal bubble compresses to 1 / 100,000th of its original size due to the pressure of the sound, during which time the light is released. The flash of light is shorter than 100 picoseconds (or trillionths of a second) in duration, vibrating with extreme regularity every 100 millionths of a second. Putterman's studies eventually made it into Scientific American in February 1995, which dramatically increased public awareness and interest in the phenomenon. An article excerpt from the Wall Street Journal on October 15, 1991 helps us to truly understand how significant this is: …A photon of blue light given off by a single atom carries an energy of 3.5 electron volts. This is a trillion times more energy than any single atom in the tiny bubbles could have gained from the sound waves. He [Putterman] speculates that as each bubble implodes to about 1/100,000 of its original [size] volume, the energy and atoms in the bubble are concentrated to a tiny point. The flash occurs when a million atoms simultaneously release this concentrated energy by giving off photons of blue light. So, we can see that if we are producing a trillion times more energy than exists in the sound waves themselves in this experiment, then quite an incredible amount of energy is coming through from "nowhere." This is typically seen as a fusion reaction. However, as we have already said, by concentrating sound waves in such a fashion as this we can open up a "gateway" for the high-pressured aetheric "fluid" to flow into our physical reality, forming light, heat and energy. Furthermore, the shape of the sphere is very important in all of this, as it helps to centralize the vibrations. An article by William Andrew Steer, working in the undergraduate teaching laboratory in the Physics Department of University College London, reveals that: millimeter difference between polar and equatorial diameters, then t…the sphericity of the flask is very important. If there is more than a he resonance becomes very much broader and less strong, requiring more electrical drive to achieve the same sound intensity in the flask.

Cymatics, a Way of Looking at Wave Propagation

The word cymatics (from the Greek kyma, meaning wave) is of fairly recent origin. The technique is not. It was Ernst Chladni who conducted the first experiments and published his findings in 1787 in a book called: Entdeckungen ueber die Theorie des Klanges (Discoveries Concerning the Theory of Music). This and other pioneering works by him laid in effect the foundation for that part of physics that we now call acoustics. One of his major successes, the one that is relevant here, was to make sound waves visible. He did this by clamping a metal plate, scattering fine sand over the surface and vibrating the plate by drawing a rosined violin bow over the edge. Depending on the size of the plate, where it was clamped, its composition, thickness and shape and where on the edge the bow was drawn, different patterns emerged in the sand, concentrating the sand on the nodal points where there was no vibration and drawing it away from the vibrating sections.
Typical Examples of Chladni Figures Chladni plates had a distinct disadvantage. They could not be used to analyse different frequencies as the working of the device depended on the frequency of the metal plate which was dependent on its construction. To overcome this restriction a device was created that allowed a wide range of frequencies to become visible on the same apparatus. In Keely's time Rudolf Koenig offered such a device for sale that he called the paper membrane. The concept was simple. A paper or thin rubber sheet was drawn over a wooden ring, a second ring was drawn over the first trapping the paper or rubber between them and tightened by wooden screws. Similar to a skin on a drum.
Koenigs Apparatus It was designed to be used in conjunction with an elliptical bell over which a rosined bow was drawn. Depending on which part of the rim the bow was drawn a number of different sounds could be produced. As before the membrane was covered with a thin layer of fine sand and the emerging patterns studied. I believe Keely used a similar device to study the effects of a combination of resonators. He talks all the time about nodal points and that was the way to make them visible at the time. Hans Jenny, the Swiss medical doctor and researcher who coined the term cymatics did little more than to adapt Koenigs membrane to modern technology by using loudspeakers and crystal oscillators instead of resonators. That way he could produce precise wanted frequencies at will. He then photographed and filmed the emerging patterns using the latest photographic techniques. Some of the photographs and films he produced are stunning. Here is a small selection of photos: In 1967 he published a book, curiously written as a bilingual volume with the cumbersome title: Kymatik -Wellen und Schwingungen mit ihrer Struktur und Dynamik/ Cymatics - The Structure and Dynamics of Waves and Vibrations. In spite of the many excellent ad readily repeatable experiments he documents one gets the feeling that his writings and his experiments serve a different agenda. He cannot help himself to foray into religion with his explanations and elucidations and appears to advocate the idea of "Intelligent Design" only thinly veiled in scientific jargon. The idea of Intelligent Design of course is simply an attempt to make Creationism palatable to a modern society. The following quotes (in italics) are from an article by Peter Pettersson, translated by Yarrow Cleaves entitled "Cymatics - The Science of the Future?" which is an excellent and accurate précis of Jenny's work and more suitable here than direct passages from his book. Jenny noticed that when the vowels of the ancient languages of Hebrew and Sanskrit were pronounced, the sand took the shape of the written symbols for these vowels, while our modern languages, on the other hand, did not generate the same result! How is this possible? Did the ancient Hebrews and Indians know this? Is there something to the concept of "sacred language," which both of these are sometimes called? What qualities do these "sacred languages," among which Tibetan, Egyptian and Chinese are often numbered, possess? Do they have the power to influence and transform physical reality, to create things through their inherent power, or, to take a concrete example, through the recitation or singing of sacred texts, to heal a person who has gone "out of tune"? Trinity In the closing chapter of the book Cymatics, Jenny sums up these phenomena in a three-part unity. The fundamental and generative power is in the vibration which, with its periodicity, sustains phenomena with its two poles. At one pole we have form, the figurative pattern. At the other is motion, the dynamic process.
These three fields - vibration and periodicity as the ground field, and form and motion as the two poles - constitute an indivisible whole, Jenny says, even though one can dominate sometimes.
Be that as it may he nevertheless describes some interesting phenomena. One experiment in particular stands out. An interesting phenomenon appeared when he took a vibrating plate covered with liquid and tilted it.The liquid did not yield to gravitational influence and run off the vibrating plate but stayed on and went on constructing new shapes as though nothing had happened. If, however, the oscillation was then turned off, the liquid began to run, but if he was really fast and got the vibrations going again, he could get the liquid back in place on the plate. According to Jenny, this was an example of an antigravitational effect created by vibrations. This is in effect something that Keely talks about when he tells us that gravity can be influenced by sonic vibrations. It is a pity that the good doctor did not investigate complex sounds such as chords. This is an area I feel that needs looking into. I will include in the experimenters section the design of some simple devices capable of demonstrating these phenomena for those that wish to look into the matter further. NOTE:

An interesting observation is described by a cymatics experimenter on one of the cymatics websites. Unfortunately he does not give his name. (highlighting is mine):

If the piezo transducer is driven at very high, or ultrasonic frequencies, and with a large amplitude it is possible to 'atomize' liquids such as water. This creates a fine mist that resembles steam in appearance. Such mists are actually tiny droplets suspended in the air yet they behave as if they were all part of a single dense fluid medium.

Is this a precondition that has to be created to achieve the dissociation of water?