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Dr Youds thanks the following for their comments on his paper:
'... Will read with interest ..." - Bruce Cathie, Author. See 'Harmonic Conquest of Space' at Amazon.co.uk
" I found the paper most fascinating..." - Larry Canada.
"... Great work ... I will also forward to my friend Callum Coats - Joseph'.
(Callum Coats is the editor of The Water Wizard : 'The extraordinary properties of natural water, by Viktor Schauberger')
"... It appears to have been thoroughly researched, thought through, and meticulously described ..."- Charles Scott
"Excellent paper! This would explain some of Keely's observations..."- Thomas Wright, Tesla Net.
"... I read your marvellous paper on the net. I'm so glad to see someone put so many of the pieces together ... in terms we can all deal with. Perhaps your place in history is assured ..." - Dale Pond, Delta Spectrum
"... It will be distributed planetwide ..." - Val Valerian (Leading Edge Research Group), Matrix books.
"... The world needs more people such as yourself ..." - Jim Branson, President, Manufacturing Knowhow, Inc
'... Your paper was brilliant. The use of conic ... and the impeller combination was a stroke of genius. You certainly made good use of my simple analysis in my first book. I have a new one... (Shape Power) where I have broken the code on how certain shapes convert the aether to other forces ...' - Dan Davidson.

DR MARK YOUDS' FACTORS OF VORTEXIAN ENERGY SOURCES - 3 Patents granted in 2001 and 2 others applied for

ABSTRACT. This paper relates to methods for processing and treating sewage and comminutin rocks. High speed photography has revealed reverse vortices within the apparatus. Disruption caused by the action within vortices and reverse vortices, in a cyclonic air-stream, together with the shearing action of an impeller's blades may alter the chemical structure of water. It may dissociate water, and generate : ozone; N2; hydroxide ions; hydrogen radicals; hydrogen peroxide; oxidised hydrogen protons; and various oxygen compounds (with high and low Rydberg states). Hydrogen and negatively charged oxygen molecules could have their molecular structures altered by breaking their covalent sigma bond. This technology has processed and treated sewage containing 21% dry solids. The powdered product contained up to 95% dry solid.
It has been confirmed that processed cattle manure contained no pathogens.

Keywords: Atomic, Cavitation, Dissociation, Electron, Implosion, Quantum, Standing-wave, Torsion, Vacuum, Vortex.

E-mail: Dr M W Youds Ph.D., B.A.TH (Hons)., Prof. Theological Physics. Inventor of a non-commercialised fireproof product made entirely from waste material. His research interests include Vortexian physics and theological quantum cosmology. He is the granted Patent holder of a device for altering the crystalline structure of gypsum, with 3 granted vortex Patents and 2 on-going applications related to this paper. He is the science officer for 3 research projects centred - a fourth is expected to start in February 2002 - around the Coal Research Establishment (CRE) in Cheltenham - A European Commission �Brite-Euram� project (comminution of quarry fines) from the Mineral Industry Research Organisation (MIRO), another EU project - ECSC (coal and steel), and an ETSU project (investigating the resulting energy savings from this technology). Dr Youds , has travelled widely in his investigation of vortex technology.

The following paper is mainly an edited version of my patent application for an invention relating to apparatus and methods for the processing and treatment of materials, sewage, bio-solids, and the comminution of rocks. In particular, this invention relates to formula-designed apparatus that utilises my, �Factors of Vortexian energy sources�, within the preferred embodiment of the apparatus, and my formula for utilising those factors.


The apparatus consists of a high speed motor attached to an impeller rotor suction fan with a specially configured 8 to 12 vane rotor which rotates horizontally or vertically, contained in housing, attached to which is a conical section, whose outer wall slopes at an angle of preferably 10.6-13 degrees. The conical section is attached to an inlet. This inlet tube is parallel, in line with the fan axis, and can be mounted horizontally, or preferably vertical with the inlet tube sucking material upwards due to the high velocity created by the rotor, thereby utilising gravity to slow the flow of the material through the apparatus, thereby enhancing the processing and treatment of material, and increasing the internal static electricity - which increases with height. (The relevance to gravity will be seen later.) The inlet tube will preferably have a diameter equal to about one-third the diameter of the rotor, and the conical section (which is attached to the fan housing casing) inlet area to the rotor must be two-thirds the diameter of the rotor. With a potential �solenoid� field, a 25.4 mm metal ring, preferably made of brass, is located at the inlet to the rotor. The vanes and the ring can make mechanical energy from the kinetic and thermal energy stored in liquids. The diameter of the rotor will be about 3 times the diameter of the inlet tube. A rotor will preferably have a diameter of 612 mm - requiring a motor in the order of 200Kw, with impeller speeds up to 7222 rpm.

A cyclone further enhances the process and may be used for controlling flocculation and precipitation, together with the effect of providing the necessary back-pressure required for optimum configuration of the invention. The pressure of the air stream within the conduit is an important factor in the processing process

Configuration of apparatus

A formula is used to determine the ideal length of the inlet tube - outlined later. All parts of the invention have relative dimensions to the other parts when the required standing wave is obtained (note: complex wave harmonics are found using the Fourier transform and integral sine wave calculations) together with the following: fundamental frequencies; frequencies (either in whole, heterodynes; multiples, or divisions of - across the first and fifteenth harmonics and / or Enharmonic spectra, and up to the one hundred and fiftieth); dominants; diatonics; harmonics; sub-harmonics; or sympathetic resonating isochronous wave vibrations thereof : 13 to 990 Hz; 349,525 vibrationary pulses; 3,145,728 sympathetic vibrationary pulses (so short-lived and of such high intensity, no equipment could measure it) ; 1 to 3 Hz; 7.24 to 10.17 Hz; 27,618 Hz to 45,696 Hz. Please note that the harmonics and resonating complex pitch are amplified in the conical area.

For the processing of material to be realised, the resonant acoustics of the medium must be ascertained by those skilled in the art - i.e. its ultra-sonic frequency value and sonic frequency value. Once the values are obtained, the formula is utilised to establish the length of the inlet tube and the rotor speed. The length of the inlet tube may also be altered, to create the required �frequency�, using known equations related to wave formation, together with the formula (i.e. incremental steps in rpm and inlet tube length are almost linear [with a slightly curved degree of tolerant accuracy - see equations 19 and 20] and relatively fixed). This is neither �Acoustophoresis� nor �Electrophoresis�, nevertheless those skilled in the art of Acoustophoresis could also identify the necessary values (representative -no external source actually creates the frequencies and in their terms the �sonic value� would only be a three digit �division� of the first acoustic). Indeed, NASA [1] patented an invention in which, � ...the second acoustic wave can be tuned to a frequency different from that of the first (acoustic wave), and to a different amplitude thereby producing a high resolution �shearing� of the liquid into its separate species�. [2]

If a wide range of sub-sonic, sonic and ultra-sonic frequencies and vibrations are created within the conduit, a hexagonal (assumed shape) lattice of superconductive vorticles, which can create �Cooper Pairs� of electrons within �Soliton� waves when the correct frequencies are input (explained later, in the formula), and non-superconductive powerful vortices is created in the air stream. This sets up pulses without and within a standing wave configuration within the system. Vorticles containing quasi single pole quantum singularities would be created in the cyclonic air stream - which carry further frequencies generated by the apparatus.


It has been found that a cyclone created in a stream of air passing through a conduit, preferably of circular cross-section, with centripetal forces (which are equal to the electric and magnetic forces in one of the main reverse vortices) created by the motion of the air stream pulls any particulate material entrained in the air stream away from the walls of the inlet tube (mid-way) and towards its central region.

High speed video photography of the inside of the conical section and rotor, has successfully recorded the existence of the reverse vortices, whose growth and stability depends upon the interrupter�s peaks gradient velocity. Spectra - supplied by the IMC group - from tests has proven the apparatus generates ultrasonic frequencies.

The more energy that went into forming rock, the greater the comminution potential. However, the opposite is the case for dissociation. The greater the energy input to the sewage, the less the dissociation potential. (The ideal sewage, known to date, would be centrifuged and transported without the aid of a screw-feed device - although those skilled in the art can determine how much energy went into the material.) e.g. It is unlikely that many types of river-bed silt would dissociate adequately for commercial purposes and neither would heavily plasticised sewage. Polymers, particularly in combination with other polymers, would also restrict the performance of the technology. The energy release from the electrons would be severely reduced because their spatial motion would be restricted by the polymer.

Therefore, it would be more advantageous if the polymer was bombarded with fluorine-17 and iodine vapour.

The apparatus (or similar apparatus) will only process material successfully (i.e. being commercially viable - my patent is probably the only way to achieve this) within the fixed parameters, derived from the formula invented for this patent. This novel invention has processed and treated centrifuged sewage containing 21% dry solids, at a rate of 4100 kg per hour. The expelled powdered product contained 70% to 95% (depending upon the ambient air temperature) dry solid, and removed at least 25% to 50% of the pathogens, due to the configuration of the invention which creates reverse vortices upstream of an impeller rotor suction fan which also shears the sewage. The end product can also be used in many applications such as fertiliser or to generate electricity. Conventional comminution energy costs are 5 times higher, by comparison, than this invention. As such, the apparatus could be utilised in coal, steel, quarrying, cement, mining, Yttrium, and brick industries.

The invention also processes, amongst other materials, glass into rounded particles with few jagged edges, and will alter the structure of clay substances to produce a far superior brick than the end user would originally have had. When the apparatus, configurated according to my patent application, processed 25.4 mm lumps of rock at a rate of 18 tons per hour there was no significant wear on the steel rotor (one having no abrasion resistant coating).



�When subject to intense sound waves, liquids can be stretched until they break and gas bubbles appear�. [3] Various types of cavitation occur in the invention and assist the dissociation and comminution processes - nevertheless it does not explain how dissociation and / or comminution / particle displacement takes place. In the explanation below there is a large enough range in pressure and temperature levels to satisfy the Bernoulli equations. However, the processes, which suddenly change the pressure and temperature, occur simultaneously, at the precise moment that conflicting and complementary frequencies meet after travelling from opposite parts of the invention.

During particle cavitation - according to the sound wave chemistry of Philip Boudjouk, Chemist, North Dakota State University - ionisation occurs, and certain electrons give up thousands of electron volts to produce heat. At this point, the apex of certain vortices are going faster, reducing frictional resistance, increasing the density - proven in 1952 by Dr. Franz Popel at the Stuttgart Technical University - and reducing the temperature, therefore, the magnetic field strength will increase.
(Note: at 4 degrees Celsius, in the phased electro-diamagnetic field, diamagnetic forces in water vortices are released, causing an increase in the speed of sound, from water prior to implosion.)

An acoustic pressure amplifying oscillation and intensifying vibrational ultrasonic wave travelling through the ions produce a sound pressure level of between 500 atm and 147,000 pounds per square inch, increasing the temperature on a micro level by many thousands of degrees Fahrenheit, but not more than 10 degrees overall. (This occurs in a �boundary envelope�, located in the �boundary cylinder� - to be explained later.) This would have the effect of dramatically reducing the amount of pathogens, but not all of them, and speeding up chemical reactions.

At this moment (of the �critical frequency combination of pulsed wave intensity�) of superposition between the �sub-critical harmonic particles combination intensity� waves of phased and out of phase particles, either explosions and / or implosions [depending on the medium] take place together with an increase in heat. In this locality is situated a resonating two-dimensional (due to an ellipsoidal time harmonic function, relative to its dimension in space) convex complex pitch discharging �corona� - hereafter referred to as the �corona�. This is not sonoluminescence, although there are similarities (with Chemiluminescence also) - in part due to the �Youds Factor� (outlined later) which, physicists should find, will assist them in understanding why sonoluminescence can occur. (Different frequencies are used in sonoluminescence.) The �corona�, whose nearby electric field is a time harmonic solution of Laplace�s equations in spherical co-ordinates which also interacts with a magnetic field, hermetically seals the high pressure sound level inside the �boundary envelope�. The �corona� is situated at the apex of a leaning reverse vortex, whose convex base emanates from the interrupter. A vacuum is created between the concave part of the interrupter and the convex base of the vortex. The interrupter is another high frequency, and high amplitude, resonating complex pitch generator (whose pitch is relative to the vibrationary frequency). Whilst rotating at speeds, the leaning reverse vortex creates a �cylindrical boundary shape� between 66.3 mm and 107.3 mm long (a Phi ratio of 1.618), with a resonating calibre base (with a Phi ratio of 1.618) of between 21 mm and 34 mm.

The base calibre depends on the length �C� of the �cylinder�, as the diameter of its base is exactly the length of the "cylinder" divided by Pi. (The equation to find out length �C� is given later. The axial length of the �cylinder� will vary according to the speed of sound and the required frequencies to be input into the apparatus - explained later in the formula.) The resonating calibre also produces a complex feedback loop in the �boundary layer� of the �cylindrical shape�, which, in part only, assists in breaking down the anti-nucleation energy barrier. About 53% of the way up is the apex of a �boundary envelope�, centrally located inside the �boundary cylinder�.

Therefore, a great deal of potential energy is obtained from the high volume resonating complex pitch of the frequencies (when the cavitation heterogeneous [due to dopants] nucleation bubble expands) at the precise moment the kinetic energy is being concentrated (when the cavitation bubble explodes). Please note that in the �corona� this phenomenon is not as a result of quantum tunnelling. Outside of the �corona� it is as a result of quantum tunnelling - which increases the current.

It is well established that any destructive resonance must usually be in acoustic harmony with the object�s circumference. The complex pitch and tones must be concordant and complete, (and therefore will correspond to the Phi standing columnar wave ratio and the Pi ratio of the base of the �boundary cylinder� circumference [which we demonstrated earlier]), with an infinite sympathetic vibration at the eye of the harmonic (at the apex of this self-polarised logarithmic Helix) within the oscillating particles / wave-forms. (This is indicative of the �corona�s� photons existing at both their alpha state and omega state, simultaneously, when the electromagnetic wave field �particles� interact with the torsion field�s self-configured teleportation mid-transmission - a dimension where polarisation transfer is not yet complete.)


Dissociation of water, due to an electron flow vibration - to form hydroxide ions; negative hydroxyl ions; hydrogen radicals; hydrogen peroxide; positive hydronium ions; oxidised hydrogen protons; various oxygen compounds; the elimination of bacteria; and the initiation of the formation of micro floc, can occur, amongst other processes, through electrolytic processes. The harmonic and enharmonic frequencies and ion-acoustic oscillating vibrations, enhanced by an instantaneous sweeper wave-form, occurring within the invention, provides the same impetus as the electrical pulsating signal that occurs during those processes. (The pitch frequency being a harmonic of the spectrums combined cube atomic weights of all the elements present, inversely oscillating.) The ExB vortex (with the potential to cause the Hz value to drift occasionally by about only 0.6 Hz when the ambient air temperature is just below 2.5 centigrade) in the magnetic field excites the molecules further, thereby improving dissociation, and ionisation.

The frequencies focus on the weak hydrogen bonds rather than the oxygen molecule. In the magnetic field, positively charged hydrogen is compressed during cavitation, which results in it also heating up. The magnetic field also compresses the hydrogen which will emit ionising radiation, depending upon the acoustic wave-forms present.

The intense disruption, caused by the action within the vortices and reverse vortices (at the apex of particular vortices electrons are created) in the cyclonic air-stream, together with the shearing action of the impeller�s blades (vanes - the number of which depends upon the application�s required intensity of frequency), will alter the chemical structure of the water, for example, by turning some of the water into hydrogen peroxide. The word �dissociation� therefore does not adequately describe the chemical activity which changes the hydrogen and negatively charged oxygen molecules into other molecular structures by breaking their covalent sigma bond. In electrolysis, an electrical pulse signal must be generated in the form of a square wave and must also be generated in inverse relation to the conductivity of the water.

When correctly configured, the invention becomes a high-order harmonic complex wave form generating synthesiser, wherein the conduction angle has been fixed to maximise the output of the desired harmonic. [4] By setting the dimensions and configuration in the manner expressed in the patent we can determine which frequencies are present in the invention. Every third harmonic smoothes the overall shape of the wave-form - which is in inverse relation to the conductivity of the water - and every odd harmonic has the effect of squaring the wave-form. Pulses also release iron cations (some are depolarised) from iron in the fabrication of the invention - especially from the iron impeller. Iron cations form compounds which polymerise - after they exit the impeller - and initiate the formation of floc in the form of micro-floc, and metal hydroxides are also formed as precipitates. The cations could also destroy cyanide. [5]

Preferably it would be more advantageous, with regards to increasing the percentage of pathogens removed from sewage, to ensure that the sewage had a pH value of 8 to 10, together with traces of a proteolytic enzyme, which brings the hydroxide ion concentration to a level which provides the most economic contaminant removal. The increase in pH will reduce hydronium concentration, thereby increasing electrocatalytic ion or couple cations. Combined with the cavitation process referred to earlier, nearly all of the pathogens would now have been removed - dramatically reducing the settlement time - and in many cases all the pathogens would now be removed, especially if a conductive salt solution is added to the process, and afterwards a pathogen eating bacteria. The newly dissociated oxygen will activate the sewage when it mixes with the bacteria and the organics. The organics then begin to break down.

A non-dissipating travelling electrical impulse is also located around the �boundary cylinder� due to the fact that we have a high speed �welded� rotor, creating a constantly changing magnetic field containing some adiabatic electrons that move parallel to the magnetic field (whose topography changes near the �corona�) and at right angles to the electrical field - meaning the invention is generating electricity.

At this point it is worth referring to the Mills� U.S. Patent (utilising a new atomic theory) which refers to a nickel cathode (the interrupter is preferably made of a high content nickel alloy with traces of copper, zinc, and selenium), one of the preferred embodiments in that Patent being to use �an intermittent square-wave having an off-set voltage of approx.� 1.4 volts�... with an applied frequency. [6]


Anyone familiar with homopolar generators will accept that the invention�s high speed rotor (preferably pre-magnetised) will emit an intensified voltage.[7] This voltage assists the process when its oscillation becomes synchronised with the input frequencies.

The leaning reverse vortex of the �boundary cylinder� has a 13 to 21 degrees gradient between the two interrupter �rounded peaks�. This vortex carries ultrasonic frequencies from the axis, in a constantly changing magnetic field, and contains a concave based vortex standing columnar wave �boundary envelope�. This base is just below the �zone of vacuum polarisation� produced by a plasma�s acoustic mode - located at the boundary layer of the two-dimensional �corona�, at a hyper-spacial intersection between non space-time and space-time. (This smaller �envelope� has an apex angle equal to its angle of torsion vibration, from which a standing columnar wave is created.) Presumably this particular boundary layer has no additional fermionic quantum dimensions, although it could appear to have Lorentz violating qualities. The plasma may be produced by quantum vacuum radiation, with any light radiating from the �corona� instantly dissipated - unlike sonoluminescence. (To suggest a �black hole� is being generated would be a fanciful and ignorant remark, as it is more likely to generate �stars� from the helium and hydrogen than a quantum chromodynamic holographic matrix. ) This particular vacuum in the invention, although relatively small, is important with regards to the electrical induction phenomenon and its place in quantum electrodynamics.[8] Modern physicists see a �vacuum zero-point energy� in a similar way to those scientists mentioned later who referred to ether.

When the frequencies are acoustically oscillating the ions at the same time as the electrical charge from the rotor core axis and / or further pulses out of phase are introduced, an implosion takes place inside the vacuum. The ions at this point act like photons on the crystalline structure by increasing the electrons conductivity.

As it is not in space-time the strength of the two-dimensional aspect of the vortex is constant. The �cylinder� also acts as a wave-guide containment field for the electro-magnetic waves, and as a gatherer of electrons in the transverse direction - a process which amplifies the sound in the �boundary envelope�.

Implosion / Explosion

Rocks can be "comminuted", amongst the other processes outlined in this Patent, when oxygen inside the rock fissures is temporarily dissociated - e.g. into two atomic fragments, one of these fragments having a low metastable Rydberg state and the other a high Rydberg state - which are ionised as a result of thermal collision. This is because an explosion will take place when the oxygen associates, causing a massive generation of energy at a micro level. In addition, as a result of any H2O in the fissures, the acoustic waves would travel faster than those in the rock, thereby sending a shock wave through the rock - similar to what can happen during an earthquake.

Although Implosions may occur within, not without (due to degeneracy pressure), certain material - except for dissociation only in the "boundary envelope" vacuum - nevertheless it is again both fanciful, ignorant, and incorrect to say that rocks implode or "disintegrate" - empirically it has been seen that they do not. The explosions and / or implosions do not always cause the rock to completely break apart, rather it weakens the rock and makes it brittle. The rock will then impact upon the interrupter and break up - not a process of spontaneous disintegration - the larger pieces will bounce back within a reverse vortex that surrounds the cylinder. This particular vortex is centrifugal, and so the pieces will first impact against other pieces - creating smaller pieces. These pieces then move towards the inner wall of the conical section, impact against each other, and finally grind against the wall, before moving between the vanes. At all times, the material is within a flow of vortices, not travelling back and forth across a single vortex. (You can't do both at the same time.)

Space Vortex Energy

We should also take note of Paramahamsa Tewari's (Chief Project Engineer, Kaiga Atomic Power Project, Nuclear Power Corporation, Karwar, India) opening abstract from his paper, "Phenomenon of electric charge generation by space rotation": "The medium of space (absolute vacuum without matter) is defined as an incompressible, zero-mass, nonviscous, continuous and mobile entity which, in its rotation at the limiting speed of light as a submicro vortex, creates electrons. The property of electric charge of electron and its electrostatic field can be shown to be the effect of rotation of space around the electron�s centre. The mass property of electron is seen to be rising due to the creation of a spherical void (hole) at electron's centre where space rotates at the limiting speed of light". [9]

A further note, is that because material is moving through the invention, the material itself produces vorticles. [10] Conduction band electrons are being continually: created; fed; and emitted (before doing any work) to further enhance the process and conversion of energy.

Under the right conditions, the "corona" could also "contain" slowed-down high-energy neutrons, with nuclei that are gravitationally and inertially confined, together with positronium, antiprotonic atoms and anti-hydrogen. The anti-matter may be nothing more than an �echo� signature from an alternative phase-space dimension caused by: the negative entropy effect from the �corona�; and / or the incumbent torsion field - but also in part due to the particle speed of the space vortex energy.

All of the inherent processes are interactive and depend upon one another for successful treatment of the material. This novel combination of processes occurs without a chronology. (This Nexus to be known as the �Youds Factor�.) Its "Fluence" is therefore immeasurable. The "Youds Factor" cannot be underestimated, when you consider the simultaneous knock-on effect of the infinite spiralling of processes, and its potential on the nucleonic molecular mean squared velocity. No time elapses between either implosion and / or explosion (depending upon the medium), cavitation, or the extreme ranges in temperature and pressure etc (except for the vacuum created implosion that occurs at the "boundary layer" of the "boundary cylinder" hyper-spacial intersection between non space-time and space-time).


This section, Physicists of note, is for general information regarding old theories related to atomic theory. (The quotes contained in this section should be seen in the light of current understanding.) In the 19th Century, John Keely claimed he was, "... able to draw vibratory energy directly from space by the aid of special resonating expedients". He stated that this energy, "is duplex, or has two opposed conditions, like positive and negative states of electricity". [11] (The name given to this "space" has changed according to the individual scientist, e.g. "scalar waves", "tachyon energy", "ether" or, "negative-time-energy", according to Robert Adams. [12] Adams went on to quote Nikola Tesla who said that sound waves travel at the speed of light in the ether, however, it is really particles of sound, rather than the speed of compression waves, which travel at the speed of light within vortices. These accelerating charged particles would produce vorticles, therefore the electron spin in the vorticles would give off "Synchroton" radiation when spiralling into the magnetic field. [13] Furthermore, Keely went on to say, "... what we call electricity is but one of the triune currents, harmonic, enharmonic, and diatonic". [14]

Over a hundred years after Keely died, Dale Pond stated, in an updated article in January 1997 entitled, "Why Music? or What does music have to do with physics?", that, "All quantum physics is based on frequency or the vibrations inherent in any and all elementary particles". Bloomfield Moore and Clara Jessup in their book, "Keely and his discoveries" (Delta Spectrum Research) wrote about Keely's "Compound Disintegrator", because although nothing like the current invention, Keely's devices utilised frequencies to create electricity and magnetic fields, and to dissociate water and matter. Indeed, the Keely motor created a standing wave with two polarisation zones within a resonator with two opposing pressure zones. (See,"The Keely Motor - How it works" by Dale Pond, IANS 1992.) The water inside the motor was subjected to impulses which caused the water to expand and therefore the pressure was increased. Readers of Keely's work will notice that he often referred to "low atomic ether" produced during dissociation.

According to Dan A. Davidson, pressure is placed on the nucleus of an atom when sound pressure is placed on a mass that has had a standing wave generated within it. Furthermore, he states that, 'The wavelength of sound - Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) rattles the nucleus', when the frequencies are on the order of the nuclear particles, "based on the proton spin which produces a small magnetic moment", because "the speed of sound is much slower than EM so a relatively low frequency ... doesn't travel very far before it has gone through a complete cycle and that distance is on the order of the proton spin resonance frequency. Thus, it is easy to see that sound can also resonate with the atomic level in as far as frequency is concerned."[15]

However, the electro-magnetic radiation frequency is relative to the spectrum of the elements being processed and their resonant frequencies - with the ultrasonic frequency to be input into the apparatus (explained later) being proportional to the NMR frequency in relation to its atomic mass and cubic mass. For a variety of definitions, not definitive or exhaustive however, of "harmony", "frequency" etc, (including Keely's method for what modern physicists call Acoustophoresis), see, "Universal Laws Never Before Revealed: Keely' secrets - Understanding and using the science of sympathetic vibration", Message Company, 1995 (Dale Pond). Pages 33 and 34 of "Energy: Breakthroughs to Free Energy Devices", by Dan Davidson, also show how Keely could find the resonant frequency of a material.


The following formula, to find the optimum operative combined length of the inlet tube and conical section length (L) and rotor speed (R), at a given speed of sound value, and to acoustically tune the apparatus to the desired vibrationary ultra-sonic and sonic frequency value of the chosen material, is relative to the rotor speed being equal to 0.75 that of the air speed entering the inlet tube. In any machine where this is different, the 0.75 figure in �U� should be amended accordingly. Those skilled in the art can either build the apparatus accordingly - relative to: the diameter of the rotor; the diameter of the inlet area to the rotor; and the diameter of the inlet tube - or amend the formula accordingly, which are in millimetres for length and millimetres per second for speed. {For those skilled in the art of Acoustophoresis: S (preferably, when S = X. Furthermore, more preferably when it can also be divided exactly by 6 [at which point if this one-sixth value equals �R� divided by the circumference, then the rotor frequency gives off a perfect harmonic to combine with the enharmonic and diatonic in �H�]) is the relative frequency value for H; U is the relative frequency value for T; and K (preferably when K divided by 2 equals the one-sixth value of the above preferred embodiment of when S = X) is the relative frequency value for I.}

For a copy of the concise paper with a DIAGRAM that explains the abbreviations, together with a photograph, e-mail Dr Youds. Both the diagram and photograph can be seen at the ENERGY21 site .

The key to the abbreviations is as follows
A = constant value 9;
B = variable value B;
C = maximum "boundary cylinder" length;
D = distance from the start of the sound wave to the back of the hub;
E = Speed of sound value in millimetres per second, which must take into account: the various temperatures; air / gas pressures; air / gas densities; air / gas humidity; processes and any adiabatic process taking place. (Those skilled in the art can determine this value. However, as an example, the speed of sound values present within the apparatus will be accurate to plus 1 or minus 3 metres per second - depending upon the medium - in relation to values derived from �ambient�: air temperature; pressure and density.);
F = ultra-sonic frequency value, in the range 27,618 to 45,696, to be input into the �corona and vacuum polarisation zone�; G = distance from the back of the hub to the wider edge of the conical section (which preferably when being built should be equal to 203 mm [about the diameter of the inlet tube]. The figure of 203 mm should be used as �G� in any apparatus. However every shortfall or increase - in its actual length - should be added or subtracted to the length of �L� after all 20 equations have been utilised.);
H = combined length of the conical section length and the sound wave;
I = inlet tube length; (The interior of the inlet tube could have an aluminium lining.)
J = conical section length; (A figure of 517.7 mm should be used as �J� in every apparatus. However every shortfall or increase in its actual length should be added or subtracted to the length of �L� after all 20 equations have been utilised.);
K = the sonic frequency value, in the range 103 to 359, to be input; (occasionally there is a direct relationship to this chosen value, and to that of the material�s number of non-participating nucleons, with the few nucleons that are itinerant not only also relating to the number of waves, but also creating magnetic rotation of the nuclei in the �corona�.);
L = distance from the start of the inlet tube to the outside of the rotor housing casing;
M = length from the start of the sound wave to the outside of the rotor housing casing;
N = exterior distance from the wider edge of the conical section to the rotor housing; (a figure of 53mm should be used for �N� for any apparatus. However every shortfall or increase in its actual length should be added or subtracted to the length of �L� after all 20 equations have been utilised.);
O = optimum configuration for combined dissociation and comminution;
P = constant value 8;
Q = minimum length of the �boundary cylinder�;
r = radius of the inlet tube;
R = rotor tip speed (when divided by the circumference of the rotor and multiplied by 60 = the rotor�s number of revolutions per minute);
S = variable value;
T = air speed;
U = K divided by 0.75;
V = one-third of I;
W = one-third of X;
X = 3K; Y = constant value 5; and
Z = optimum conditions for harmonic frequency precision.
The main 20 equations:
1. F divided by A = B
2. E divided by B = C
3. 2(A multiplied by C) = D
4. D minus G = H
5. H minus J = I
6. I multiplied by K = R
7. H plus N = M
8. M minus 0.6r = L
9. (H divided by 2) divided by P = Q
10. (E divided by 2H) multiplied by Y = S
11. T divided by I = U
12. R divided by X = V
13. I = T divided by U
14. W = R divided by I
15. Distance Q to C = The �corona� and �vacuum polarisation nexus zone�
16. When S = X, then Z
17. When C = Q, then O
18. Space is folded, rather than time reversal, when C is less than Q (explained later, in the section �Heuristic Applications�)
19. 3(R divided by S)+J+N-0.6r-�L�=degree of accuracy for �L� in mm.
20. 3(R divided by S) multiplied by K, minus R, divided by the rotor�s circumference, multiplied by 60 = the degree of accuracy in the rotor�s rpm

This formula was invented to: optimise the preferred embodiment; optimise similar designed apparatus that has hitherto probably not been commercially viable; and also to realise all of the factors of Vortexian energy sources outlined in this paper. The complete formula creates a standing wave within the material at the "corona".

To obtain a standing wave along �L�, then add �C� to �L�. (A rough indicator of a standing wave being present is when a piece of string remains stationary in the air stream.)

To go further, beyond the boundaries calculated by equations 19 and 20, would result in the electro-magnetic field becoming linear once more (resulting in a decrease of the torque of the electrical and magnetic fields), and �L� and �R� no longer having a near linear relationship - for practical use. Furthermore, the quantum phenomenon could no longer be accurately controlled due to the loss of the identifiable pulsed (and its angular anisotropy) inter-relationship with our solar system�s oscillation and muon magnetic moment, together with non-creation of resonating pions.

Additional Parameters To Be Considered

A further factor to be taken into account, by those skilled in the art, is the fact that the resonant frequencies of materials must be periodically checked for any alteration caused by the changes occurring to our planet�s resonant frequency, which has increased in recent decades and is continuing to rise.

A century ago, our planet's frequency was about 7.83 Hz. This figure has probably increased to no more than 8.25 Hz - i.e. in line with the increase occurring generally in the Universe. This is relevant if old data at the 7.83 Hz value is being utilised by the operator of the apparatus. If this is the case, rather than take further readings it would be simpler, for example in the case of 8.25 Hz, to multiply �F� and �K� by 1.05 for use in the above formula. However, due to the complex nature of the processes taking place inside the machine, and in order to maintain near linearity, this could only be used to obtain the desired rotor speed. To find the desired �I�, the original value for �K� should be used to determine �U� - therefore the value �I� to actually be used in operation = �T� divided by old value �U�.

Although a higher ultrasonic value may be used, for theoretical purposes it is possible that the old frequency value appears to be still active in the �Corona� due to the �red-shift� relationship with the Earth�s gravitational field. (Unusually, this �red-shift� might occur between a third and fourth harmonic rather than between the first and second, without any reduction in the energy of the photons.)

The apparatus will not adequately process material if the ambient air temperature is below -65.5 Celsius or above 94 and two-thirds Celsius. The preferred mean temperature range is between 2.5 C and 42 C. The general pattern, for all frequency values input, is that a third of 1 degree Celsius increase / decrease in temperature equates to a 6 rpm increase / decrease in the rotor�s speed and a 1 mm increase / decrease in the length of the inlet tube, when the impeller speed is 0.75 that of the air speed entering the inlet tube.

The range of fundamental frequencies which may be input into the �Youds factor� zone, to establish a standing wave within the material at the �corona� and �vacuum polarisation zone�, is between 27,618 and 45,696, with the sonic input range choice being between 103 and 359. The diameter of the rotor also has extreme ranges from 426 mm to 847 mm. (Please note, from using the formula it can be shown that the smaller the rotor diameter, the faster it needs to go for processing.) It should be stressed that the ranges quoted are only the extremes relative to commercial viability. Specialised applications are therefore still possible. However, the resonant acoustic wave frequency values of materials for processing, particularly sewage and bio-solids, will be well within the quoted ranges.

To estimate how much water will be removed from the sewage you can use the following guideline: (�C� divided by 2�P�) minus the distance between �C� and �Q� = a variable. Divide this variable by (�C� divided by 2�P�) = another variable. Multiply this new variable by the percentage of water in the sewage to find the number of percentage points that will be deducted (�PD�) from the original percentage of water in the sewage. However, at cooler ambient air temperatures the actual percentage of water removed may increase because of increased conductivity transmission rates when the temperature declines. The figure would also be slightly higher due to a reduced through-put of material in colder temperatures and the material would also be in the dissociation zone for longer, due to the reduced air speed.

On a continuous basis, it is recommended, as a guide, that the apparatus will process 0.65 kg per hour of sewage, for every 1 rpm of the rotor, which could be made from Titanium. For every increase above the through-put guide figure, a proportional decrease in the amount of water dissociated will occur. For example, an 8% increase in the amount of sewage fed into the apparatus, above the �guide� figure given above, would result in an 8% reduction of �PD�.

The very high centrifugal acceleration that is present assists in the stability of the �boundary cylinder�, despite the introduction of material to be processed. It is critical to the performance of the apparatus, that the material is fed in at a fairly even and constant flow rate. (An excess of material, or a high inconsistent through-put, may cause instability within the reverse vortices.)

Although the primary process takes place around the �corona�, the �boundary cylinder� where the itinerant nucleonic dipolar field is excited, and the �boundary envelope�, other processes occur, other than these three areas - e.g., the reverse vortex that extends as far into the inlet tube as the length of the �cylinder�. There is also the vortices contained within the vanes which continue the process after the vanes have sheared the material, and also the secondary vacuum located between the interrupter�s peaks.

Number of blades (vanes)

An 8 vane impeller requires more energy than a 9 or 10 vane impeller, and is for a more specific application than the 9 or 10. This is because the 8 vane is less likely to: square the wave-form; smooth the wave-form; or reach the required sub-critical decibel intensity ranges - although it is better than a 9 vane at producing heterodynes. Furthermore, the peak frequencies generated by the 8 vane can be five-sixths of the frequency input for the 9 or 10 vane impeller. (Which might also create more intense �black-body� radiation in the "boundary envelope", and oscillation of the non-inflationary flat "no-boundary" scalar particle field.) Those skilled in the art of Acoustophoresis, together with those with knowledge of "noise and vibration" can determine the required number of vanes suitable for a particular application by using the equations.
The following equation can be used to establish the preferred number of vanes: (�F� divided by 6) divided by (The RPM established from �R�, divided by 10) = the number of vanes to be used on the impeller. (If the old Acoustophoresis data is used for �F� then round up the figure, obtained from this equation, to the nearest whole number. However, if new data for �F� is used then round down the figure, obtained from this equation, to the nearest whole number. Therefore, do not automatically go to the nearest whole number.) This formula will show, that in hot climates more blades are required for comminution (above the mean value of 10), but less blades are required for dissociation. In a cold climate, more blades are required for dissociation (above the mean value of 10) but less for comminution.

Head and ear protection should be worn, just in case the sound upsets the 12 cycle per minute cranial impulse produced by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) which allows natural movement of the 22 bones in the skull.


Coulombic Annihilation Fusion

If Randell L. Mills' atomic theory [16] is correct, "Coulombic Annihilation Fusion" - ["CAF"] is obviously taking place inside the invention. The CAF process present would not be on-going, due to a lack of nuclei during the neutron flux which would occur after the spherical shock wave obtained a neutron split over neutron loss. When "CAF" occurs, the "corona" plasma's electrical resistance decreases. In contrast to the other vacuum areas, the only vacuum in the invention related to the CAF process is the one referred to at the "zone of vacuum polarisation".

Atomic Energy

The combustion energy equivalent to dissociate water, achieved by the invention, exceeds the energy required to run the motor. When the invention was being tested, it was also noted that the nearer the prototype got to its optimum configuration, the less were the amps that were being pulled.

The proof that CAF effects are limited is based on empirical evidence, characteristic of plasma fusion, namely the formation of Abrikosov vortices and temporary gamma-radiation that occur when the invention is correctly configured. This could mean that oppositely spinning pairs of photons would be present - according to John Griggs' 1954 "Unified particle theory" in which he claimed that photons are cylindrical, as well as explaining why no time reversal is taking place. Instantaneously occurring sweeper wave-forms, referred to earlier, are often associated with thunderstorms, as are Abrikosov vortices, ball-lightning, electrical discharging plasma, and neutron formation. [17] The technology could therefore create permanent "storm" - and earthquake - conditions, similar to one occurring in nature, coupled with polarised space vortex energy. As such, the law of conservation of energy is maintained, together with no loss of quantum information.

In the equation, C is less than Q, space is �folded� due to a rapid increase in captured photons sympathetically vibrating with their counterparts at an immeasurable distance - rather than as a result of virtual photons being produced by the vacuum - assisted by, but not due to, the solitons being squeezed - which also assists the refinement of the ultrasonic frequency and the creation of negative feedback, enhanced by the resulting action from the nickel ions, travelling back down the centre of the inlet tube, being surrounded by incoming aluminium ions.

When space "folds" - rather than being �warped� - dissociation of water reduces dramatically but implosions within matter, for comminution, increases dramatically. This is because the �vacuum polarisation zone� is now in front of the "corona", rather than below it. The percentage of CAF taking place also increases. (�C� minus �Q�) divided by (�C� divided by 2�P�) multiplied by 5.4617215 = the percentage of time that the CAF process takes place. With this technology, the higher the CAF time, the less water dissociated.

(The "folding" effect explains why some theories intimate that you can go faster than light or that time reversal is possible. Non-space time and space folding is transitionary only and therefore degradation has only been delayed. However, the two of them combined means space actually collapses without precession.)

From an heuristic viewpoint this technology, when space is folded, could be utilised to promote both: the transmutation of matter; and, interstellar, interplanetary, and inter-dimensional travel.
The formulae may even help in a new design of the VASIMR rocket, and also assist aeronautical engineers in either reducing drag on subsonic aircraft or even making supersonic aircraft invisible.
However, please note that oxygen must surround the apparatus in order to avoid hydrogen embrittlement. (Suffusion of hydrogen gas can make metal brittle.)

The technology could also be utilised in anti-gravity devices, as well as being used to detoxify poisons, deactivate dangerous chemicals, and produce cheaper drugs.

An input of certain frequencies would enable the technology to generate its own vortex space energy which could be collected and used as an energy source.

In the right circumstances, this invention could also dissociate water, creates ozone - after dissociating air - which helps to reduce the smell of the sewage, creates N2, and comminutes rocks and materials containing oxygen.

The technology could also be utilised to generate: hydroxide ions; hydrogen radicals; hydrogen peroxide; oxidised hydrogen protons; various oxygen compounds (with high and low Rydberg states); CO2; D20; protium; deuterium; tritium; and helium - temporarily liquefied in 5.24 parts per million before being converted into mechanical energy.


The duality of particles / waves should be viewed from the perspective of the vibration from the nucleus, acting as a protective barrier to its programming. Particles form themselves into waves through sympathetic attraction to the protective wave barrier. Therefore, the nucleus is dictating the wavelength to the electron.

From a theological cosmology, all matter is attracted in an effort to achieve consciousness - the true esoteric goal of science. This 'ether' type consciousness is beyond the 'Youds Factor' space vortex energy source - where neutral mass particles, being neither matter nor anti-matter, do not revolve until an external source (even thought induced gravity) activates them, in their potential fields, to produce matter. Prior to activation, there is no 'time' or Weyl curvature. This is where confusion arises in theories looking for the "ether", which should really determine what precisely it is they are looking for.

In a magnetic field, when particular external frequencies bombard the nucleus, the radiative electron particles are further excited and change their orbital movement. During self-polarisation, if you sufficiently alter the vibration from the nucleus, then solid matter may cease to be solid, together with an excess combination of electrons whose up / down equilibrium has now been destroyed.

Although the out of phase waves cause interference and cancel each other out, the inward 'missing spin' dialectic particles remain and are attracted - making them susceptible to be dictated to from an external, quantum mechanically generated, matrix of standing waves.

The practical knowledge outlined in my patent, obtained theoretically and empirically, is limited to only sufficiently altering the matrix of frequencies within the nucleus in order to control the processes also outlined herein.

However, if you could accurately dictate the structure of the matrix (and its relationship to valence band electrons) you could therefore create any kind of matter you desire - only if the relationship between the particle spectrum (and its physical probability factor [as an imaginary number only]) and the nucleus' wave (and its matrix / matrices) is established. (I.E. particle to wave, not wave to "superposed" wave.)

Greater attention should be paid to the precise speed of sound factor when analysing quantum data. (Possible since May 1997, thanks to the Technical University of Denmark's Department of Acoustic technology. DEMONSTRATION.)

To the layman, the phenomenon described herein seems incredible because the process can't be easily 'visualised', or therefore understood, yet, by many. However, any enlightened physicist could see that no laws of physics have to be reinterpreted, or Higgs particles / fields included, in order to explain it - with no "strings" attached.


U.S. Patent 5,607,563, "Nature of excited states", James A. Patterson, Ph.D..
U.S. Patent 6,024,935, Randell L. Mills.
U.S. Patent 4,567,407, John Ecklin -A theory recognising the energy in electron spin.


1. U.S. Patent numbers 5,192,450 and 5,147,562
2. NASA tech brief, January 1990
4. U.S. Patent No. 5,990,712.
5. U.S. Patent No. 3,933,606.
6. U.S. Patent No. 6,024,935
7. "Homopolar "Free-energy" Generator", a paper presented on June 21st 1986 at the Society for Science Exploration in San Francisco, by Robert Kincheloe, Professor of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University.
8. Macroscopic Vacuum Polarisation, Moray B. King.
9. The free-energy device handbook: A compilation of Patents and reports by David Hatcher Childress, Adventures Unlimited Press, 1995, chapter 8, page 191.
10. On the Motion of an Elliptic Cylinder Through a Viscous Fluid, Richards. G.J., A.R.C.S., Bsc., P.I.C., PhD., London: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A., Vol. 233, pp 279 - 301; and Computer Experiments in Fluid Dynamics, Harlow, Francis H. and Fromm, Jacob., Scientific American, Feb. 1964.
11. Universal Laws Never Before Revealed: Keely's secrets - Understanding and using the science of sympathetic vibration, Message Company, 1995, Dale Pond.
12. Nexus magazine, 30/4/1993.
13. Scientific American, Feb. 1969, 56.
14. Snell Manuscript, C.W.Snell, Delta Spectrum Research.
15. On the production of Aetheric stress waves utilising sound vibration, or, Sonic Stimulation of the Aether, Dan A. Davidson.
16. The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Quantum Mechanics, Mills, R., Technomic Publishing Company, Lancaster, Pa., 1995.
17. Possible Natural Cold Fusion in the Atmosphere, Nick Hawkins, Fusion Technology, 19, 2212, July, 1991.

Thank you for your paper. I have studied it with interest, but seem to be unable to grasp it's essence, unless you are advocating a destructive (dissociative) use of vortex technology, which seems to be the case from the use (processing of sewage) mentioned. In any case, I wish you success in the commercialisation of your invention. Kind regards - Josef Hasslberger.

I wish you every success with your revolutionary inventions. We need them' - William Schaffer.